vertebral kind containing foramina in the transverse processes, with which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain


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A. INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINAB. LAMINAC. PEDICLED. SPINOUS PROCESSE. TRANSVERSE PROCESSF. Remarkable ARTICULAR FACETG. VERTEBRAL FORAMENH. BODY


Spinal nerves ( motor axons) departure the vertebral pillar via the ventral source (where castle synapse on motor neuron ganglia ) then the ventral horn. Sensory nerves enter the spinal cord via the dorsal horn, synapse ~ above the dorsal ganglia and also enter the spinal cord.

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discs and the S-shaped that the vertebral tower prevent shock to the head in walking and also running and carry out flexibility to the body trunk


a disc in i beg your pardon the cell nucleus puposus herniates through the annulus;the nucleus pulposus compresses ~ above the spinal cord causing pain/possible paralysis


The two primary curvatures that we"re born with space the concave front curvatures in the thoracic and also sacral spines.


The "secondary" curvatures, the compensatory curvatures, occur with regular development. (Normal advancement is the condition under which castle occur) These are the cervical curvature, which develops first with infant head lifting and the lumbar curvature, which establishes next sitting up. This curvatures prepare the spine because that ambulation.

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The major bony contents of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) space the ___________ and also the _______________.


A free floating rib is no a true or false rib. Ribs 1-7 are thought about "true" ribs due to the fact that they are straight attached come the sternum by individual seaside cartilages. Ribs 8-10 are considered "false" ribs because they space indirectly attached come the sternum through a common seaside cartilage. Ribs 11 and 12 are taken into consideration "free floating" due to the fact that they room neither straight or indirectly attached come the sternum. Instead, they end in posterior ab musculature. They room still capped with cartilage though