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You are watching: Which stage of mitosis is the shortest

StatPearls . Sweetheart Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Genetics, Mitosis

Ibraheem Rehman; Aaishwariya Gulani; Mustafa Farooq; Brittany Simpson.

Author Information

Introduction

The ability to blee is one trait that sets life organisms apart from nonliving matter. The flow of life is based upon cell division or the reproduction that cells. Cell department can beat a different role in different organisms. For example, as soon as a prokaryotes cell typically divides, the has totally reproduced since it offers rise to a brand-new organism. However, in multicell eukaryotes, mitotic cell department is greatly used because that growth and replacement or fix of injured cells. Most cell division results in genetically similar daughter cells.  First, a splitting cell replicates that is DNA. After a selection of steps, the cabinet divides via motisis and cytokinesis. Mitosis is one part of the cell cycle, i beg your pardon is detailed below. <1><2><3>


Cellular

The whole of a cell’s DNA is called its genome. Throughout cell division, the entirety genome is replicated exactly and distributed come 2 daughter cells. A human being cell generally has around 2 meter of DNA. Because of the enormous length, the DNA must be highly condensed to fit right into the cell nucleus of each cell. The highly condensed packages the DNA room termed chromosomes once the cell has completed the synthesis phase and is prepared to experience mitosis. Assorted proteins help the DNA in urgently compactly right into subunits of nucleosomes and chromatin. Human being somatic cells have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes for a complete of 46 chromosomes - 22 set of autosomes and 1 collection of sex chromosomes. A single collection of chromsomes is inherited from every parent.<4><5><6> DNA packaging is disputed in a different StatPearls reviews - Genetics, DNA Packaging and Genetics, Histone Code.


Mechanism

The mitotic phase is normally the shortest part of any cell cycle. The largest portion of the cabinet cycle, interphase, makes up 90% that a cell"s life cycle, and is the phase for growing and also performing the moving functions specific to the cell. The interphase is further split into 2 G phases- G1 and also G2- and an S phase. Throughout these phases, the cabinet grows by producing various proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. During the S phase, the cell replicates its genome in preparation for cell division or mitosis. Mitosis occurs throughout M phase, which wake up after interphase. <7>

Phases

Mitosis is traditionally divided right into 5 phases, which incorporate prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and also telophase and cytokinesis. In interphase, a nuclear envelope surrounding the nucleus, the DNA is replicated in the S phase, and the sister chromatids sign up with together at the central portion of the chromosome - the centromere. Come organize the chromsome motion in the cell to assist make department efficient and also ensure all material is present in both daughter cells, the cell has centrosomes at every pole the the cell. Centrosomes theorem the fibers of the mitotic spindle during mitosis the will aid pull the sister chromatids apart.

In prophase, the dyed fibers condense right into chromosomes that are visible v a light microscope, every replicated chromosome shows up as two the same sister chromatids join at your centromeres, and the mitotic spindle starts to form. Also, the centrosomes begin to relocate to opposite poles of the cell, and they are pushed by the lengthening microtubules between them.

In prometaphase, the nuclear envelope drops apart; microtubules deserve to now invade the atom area and bind to few of the chromosomes. The microtubules bind at the kinetochores, dedicated protein structures at the centromere. No all microtubules interact with kinetochores. Part microtubules connect with microtubules expanding from the other side of the cell.

In metaphase, the centrosomes have migrated come opposite poles of the cell. The chromosomes have all lined up at the metaphase key in the center of the cell, and all chromosomes room attached to microtubules through their kinetochores. The metaphase bowl is one imaginary heat equidistant from the spindle’s 2 poles.

In anaphase, the shortest phase of mitosis, the sister chromatids rest apart, and the chromosomes begin moving to opposite end of the cell. By the finish of anaphase, the 2 halves the the cell have actually an indistinguishable collection of chromosomes.

In telophase, 2 daughter nuclei form. The atom envelope us to reappear. DNA begins to de-condense while spindle microtubules start to depolymerize. Mitosis, the division of one nucleus into 2, is now complete. Lastly, cytokinesis, i beg your pardon is the department of the cytoplasm, takes place and also the cabinet divides into 2 separate cells. In animal cells, this is completed through a cleavage furrow the pinches the cell in 2.

Regulation 

Throughout mitosis, details checkpoints are important to the continuation of the process. If particular conditions are not met, mitosis halts. If any of these checkpoints room bypassed without being complete, particular pathology, such as cancer, can occur.<8><9>

There space three key checkpoints in mitosis, and also those include the G1/S checkpoint, G2/M, and metaphase/ anaphase checkpoint. During the G1/S checkpoint, additionally known together the border checkpoint, major influencers of cell cycle progression incorporate growth factors, DNA damage, cabinet size, and cell nutrition.  The G2/M checkpoint, additionally known as the DNA replication checkpoint, is affected by improper DNA replication or DNA damage. The 3rd checkpoint, additionally known together the spindle apparatus checkpoint, is inflienced by attachments of the mitotic spindle to every chromosomes. Only as soon as all sisters chromatids have actually been bound will certainly mitosis proceed into anaphase.

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Cell Types 

It is important to identify that cells have the right to progress v the cell cycle in different manners. Cells can withdraw indigenous the energetic cell cycle, and also exist in a non-proliferating or quiescent state. This cells are claimed to it is in in the G0 phase. During G1, a cell decide to stay in G1 or leave the energetic cell cycle and enter right into the G0 phase. Various cell varieties are classified listed below on your characteristic cabinet cycle progressions. <11>

Labile cell types are cells that space constantly proliferating, via stem cells, in stimulate to change cells that have died or sloughed off. Some instances of labile cell varieties include skin epithelium, cradle epithelium, salivary gland tissue, and also hematopoietic cabinet types. That is crucial to identify that chemotherapy offered in cancer treaments has toxic effects against healthy cells, specifically cells undergoind quick renewal.<12>

Quiescent or steady cell species are usually in a non- separating state, yet may get in the cabinet cycle  in respons to specific stimuli. Instances of secure cell species include: lymphocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and others. 

Finally, long-term cell types are can not to proliferate, and also are considered non- dividing. Instances of long-term cell types include cardiac and also skeletal muscle. <13>