Chapter 17 groundwater Earth: An introduction to physics Geology, 9e (Tarbuck/Lutgens) 17.1 Multiple-Choice concerns 1) After ice cream sheets and glaciers, ________ contain(s) the next highest possible percentage the the Earth"s freshwater. A) the environment B) lakes and also rivers C) groundwater D) rocks & mineral Answer: C Diff: 12) which common, rock-forming mineral or mineral group is most readily dissolved by groundwater? A) calcite B) quartz C) feldspars D) clay minerals Answer: A Diff: 13) i beg your pardon of the adhering to is not a general characteristic the groundwater? A) constant temperature year ring B) rarely has dissolved constituents C) rarely contains suspended sediment D) supply is elevation of short droughts Answer: B Diff: 14) A present is stated to be perennial and also effluent when ________. A) the channel is over the local water table year round B) the neighborhood water table is above the channel bottom year ring C) the channel bottom and the water table are constantly at the specific same level D) precipitation is such that the water table remains continuous throughout the year Answer: B Diff: 15) The water table is ________. A) a boundary in between unsaturated bedrock and also an underground flow B) a boundary in between unsaturated radical below and also saturated bedrock above C) an secret mass of partly saturated absent D) a boundary in between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above Answer: D Diff: 116) ________ controls the ease (or difficulty) of groundwater transmission v a porous material. A) Potability B) Portability C) Permeosity D) Permeability Answer: D Diff: 17) ________ are features found in all great aquifers. A) High porosity and also high permeability B) low permeability and also high potability C) High potability and high portability D) low porosity and also low permeability Answer: A Diff: 18) A perched water table creates when ________. A) a horizontal aquitard over the regional water table lies listed below an aquifer B) an aquifer over the local water table is overlain by a horizontal aquitard C) one aquifer below the local water table is underlain by a horizontal aquitard D) one aquitard listed below the local water table lies above a horizontal aquifer Answer: A Diff: 19) one artesian fine is one in which ________. A) the water is warm, fairly saline, and also recharged by an affluent stream B) pressurized groundwater rises from a deep, unsaturated aquifer C) water rises over the top of the aquifer without any kind of pumping D) the fine is horizontal and the water table is perched Answer: C Diff: 110) Which among the following statements is true for an artesian aquifer? A) The water table in the recharge area is in ~ a higher elevation than the height of the aquifer in the subsurface. B) Upward flow from a permeable aquitard is prevent by a confining aquifer. C) The press at any point in the aquifer is significantly less than the load of the water column between the allude and the optimal of the aquifer. D) In deep, stream-cut valleys, numerous springs space fed native artesian aquifers. Answer: A Diff: 1211) excessive groundwater withdrawals can reason ________. A) The water table autumn or declines in elevation. B) one influent stream becomes an effluent stream. C) development of the dewatered aquifer. D) Porosity in the aquifer increases as the water is removed. Answer: A Diff: 112) Which among the complying with situations an outcome from excessive withdrawl of groundwater in a provided area? A) unconsolidated medium-grained sand; sand grains room coated v clay mineral B) sandstone; well-cemented v a few, extensively spaced upright fractures C) lakebeds; unconsolidated very fine-grained sand and also silt D) limestone; many solution channels and fractures widened by resolution Answer: D Diff: 113) Which one of the following logically explains why parts of part cavern systems space aerated? A) The caves formed and later the water table rose. B) A nearby, downcutting stream lower the water table ~ the caves had actually formed. C) Streams formerly flowing top top the surface were diverted into the groundwater system through sinkholes. D) The main water table is perched over the cavern roofs, allowing air to enter. Answer: B Diff: 114) exactly how would hazardous substances behave that accidentally entered a underground water system? A) Gasoline and kerosene would certainly float top top the water table; ethyl alcohol would certainly dissolve and also disperse in the groundwater. B) Gasoline and also kerosene would float ~ above the water table, yet most pesticides break down chemically as soon as they reach the water table. C) Sulfuric and nitric acids would certainly sink to the bottom the the aquifer; kerosene would accumulate as a layer just listed below the water table. D) every one of the over hazardous substances would certainly dissolve right into the groundwater. Answer: A Diff: 115) A ________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof that a cavern. A) stalandite B) stalactite C) stalagmite D) slagdite Answer: B Diff: 1316) ________ are details features that karst topography. A) Streams flowing into depressions and also continuing underground B) Perched water table springs on hillsides C) many artesian wells in a given area D) Perennial, influent streams fed by huge springs Answer: A Diff: 117) i beg your pardon of the following can logically be concluded through speleothems/dripstone hanging indigenous a cave roof? A) The cave roof was below the water table when the speleothems formed. B) The cavern floor was over the water table and the roof was below the water table when the speleothems formed. C) The cave roof was above the water table as soon as the speleothems formed. D) The cave roof was listed below the water table at some time after the speleothems had actually formed. Answer: C Diff: 218) ________ account for the largest usage of underground water in the joined States. A) Water for livestock and poultry B) Domestic and also municipal offers C) industrial uses D) farming and watering Answer: D Diff: 119) What is the relationship between drawdown and the cone that depression linked with a pumping well? A) The drawdown is the diameter of the cone that depression measured in ~ the key of the initial water table. B) The drawdown is the percent of accessible water in the aquifer the has currently been used. C) Drawdown is the distance between the original water table and also the water level in the well. D) there is no relationship between drawdown and the cone that depression. Answer: C Diff: 120) The hot spring deposits in ~ Mammoth hot Springs, Yellowstone national Park, room travertine. What rock probably lies what beneath the warm springs? A) shale B) rhyolite C) limestone D) quartzite Answer: C Diff: 1421) which of the complying with statements concerning unconfined aquifers on obstacle islands and atolls is correct? A) Wells drilled listed below sea level will create only saline water. B) The water table have to be 40 feet over sea level to store the braided water in the aquifer listed below sea level. C) any salty water in the aquifer will rise if the water table is lowered by pumping. D) pumping freshwater native one, large capacity well is much much less likely to reason salty water to climb in the aquifer than pumping indigenous several, extensively spaced, smaller capacity wells. Answer: C Diff: 122) The aerated region ________. A) lies above the water table B) sharp spaces are filled with water C) is a well-oxygenated, shallow aquifer D) lies below the capillary fringe zone Answer: A Diff: 123) because that unconfined aquifers, what hydrologic variable is approximated by the steep of the water table? A) porosity head B) hydro competency C) affluent decrease D) hydraulic gradient Answer: D Diff: 124) one aquifer is ________. A) the porous and also permeable, saturation cone of depression in an aquitard B) a layer or stratum in i beg your pardon groundwater operation downward to the water table C) a saturated, porous, and also permeable class or stratum D) one unsaturated, influent-flow bed or stratum below a spring Answer: C Diff: 125) A lens of fresh groundwater in an unconfined aquifer overlies deeper, braided groundwater. If the water table elevation drops through one foot, how much will the interface between the freshwater and also salty water rise? A) 10 feet B) 30 meter C) 20 meters D) 40 feet Answer: D Diff: 1526) ________ would have actually the largest capacity to normally remove sewer pollutants. A) fractured granite B) Well-sorted, rough circuit gravel C) slightly clayey sand D) Limestone with equipment channels and also caverns Answer: C Diff: 127) What force pushes groundwater from pore to pore listed below the water table? A) combined saturation advertise B) permeability steepness C) press gradient or hydraulic gradient D) seepage affluence actor Answer: C Diff: 128) which of the following describes the configuration of an unconfined water table about a pumping well? A) depressional tap the money B) upside-down siphon C) cone the depression D) turning back cone head Answer: C Diff: 129) A disappearing (sinking) creek is ________. A) one influent present in a karst area B) a stream the downcuts listed below the water table C) a creek the originates as a huge spring flow from a cavern D) a small creek flowing downslope come the peak of a perched water table Answer: A Diff: 130) Which among the following worrying stalactites and stalagmites is no true? A) Stalactites are deposited indigenous water dripping indigenous the ceiling of an aerated cavern. B) Both are composed the calcium carbonate. C) Both are forms of dripstone; stalactites cave from the ceiling, stalagmites grow upward indigenous the cavern floor. D) Stalagmites form on the floors of caves below the water table. Answer: D Diff: 1631) Which one of the following concerning artesian wells is no true? A) The fine penetrates one aquifer overlain by one aquitard. B) The fine penetrates one aquifer underlain by one impermeable bed. C) The aquifer is normally inclined, and also it is saturation to one elevation over the point where the fine penetrates the aquifer. D) when the fine penetrates the aquifer, the water rises to the bottom the the aquitard above the aquifer. Answer: D Diff: 132) ________ is the volume of voids or open an are in a rock or unconsolidated material. A) Permeability B) an are yield C) Porosity D) Saturation table of contents Answer: C Diff: 133) The hatchet karst topography was first used in ________. A) the Republic of Slovenia, a province of the previous Yugoslavia B) eastern Canada in locations of broken igneous and metamorphic rocks C) India close to the southern foothills of the Himalayan hills D) Australia because that the extremely dry internal area near Ayres Rock and Alice Springs Answer: A Diff: 134) Which among the adhering to is not a speleothem? A) geyserite B) dripstone C) stalactite D) stalagmite Answer: A Diff: 135) an unconfined water table is the ________. A) boundary in between the saturated zone above and partially saturated zone listed below B) bottom boundary surface ar of the saturation zone above an aquitard C) boundary between the aerated zone over and saturation zone listed below D) boundary between the aerated and unsaturated area Answer: C Diff: 1736) i beg your pardon of the following finest describes exactly how geysers erupt? A) Water suddenly boils in disconnected voids and also cracks over the water table, resulting in the aquifer come explosively fragment. B) Water slowly boils in a network of vertical cracks above the water table, sending up a plume of steam and warm water. C) Water below the water table slowly boils in a vertical cracked or natural conduit, resulting in a plume the condensed water vapor come rise over the vent. D) with a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, organic conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of heavy steam and hot water into the air above the vent. Answer: D Diff: 137) Where space the most substantial geothermal functions in the world? A) Yosemite nationwide Park, U. S. B) Geysers Artesian Park, Japan C) Iceland"s Groundwater keep D) Yellowstone nationwide Park, U. S. Answer: D Diff: 117.2 Word analysis Questions research the native and/or phrases for each concern below and also determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern. 1) A) zone that saturation B) belt of floor moisture C) capillary fringe D) zone of aeration Answer: zone the saturation Diff: 12) A) porosity Answer: aquitardB) permeabilityC) aquitardD) aquiferDiff: 23) A) spring B) aquitard saturation Answer: zone that saturationC) perched water table D) zone ofDiff: 24) A) stalagmite Answer: sinkholeB) soda strawC) sinkholeDiff: 117.3 True/False inquiries 1) Water infiltrates under to the water table indigenous influent streams. Answer: TRUE Diff: 18D) stalactite2) Porosity is a measure up of the volume that open room in rocks and also unconsolidated, geological products like alluvium and also soils. Answer: TRUE Diff: 13) Permeability is the physical pressure that pushes water below the water table through a porous, absent material. Answer: FALSE Diff: 14) The water table is a surface ar separating the saturated and unsaturated zones. Answer: TRUE Diff: 15) In humid areas and for unconfined, underground water conditions, the water table typically slopes toward the sink of a perennial stream. Answer: TRUE Diff: 16) many caves and also caverns originate by solution of limestone. Answer: TRUE Diff: 17) Speleothems generally kind below the water table through water dripping indigenous the roofs of caverns. Answer: FALSE Diff: 18) A perched water table develops in hilly terrain where an aquitard underlies an aquifer and also both are above the key of the main water table. Answer: TRUE Diff: 19) Water-saturated muds have actually low permeabilities however can have higher porosities than wellcemented sandstone. Answer: TRUE Diff: 110) warmth springs in the east United says are largely heated through geologically young, igneous rocks below the surface. Answer: FALSE Diff: 111) In locations of karst topography, rare surface streams generally flow right into sinkholes and continue flow underground for part distance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1912) Yosemite national Park in California is world famous because that its warm springs, geysers, and other geothermal phenomena. Answer: FALSE Diff: 113) In locations underlain through unconsolidated or weakly consolidated strata, lowering of the water table can cause the land to subside. Answer: TRUE Diff: 114) Lowering of the water table around a pump well outcomes in a cone the infiltration. Answer: FALSE Diff: 115) on a coastal barrier island, the interface between the freshwater and also salty water normally lies 40 feet below the top of the freshwater lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 116) In general, contaminated groundwater will certainly be naturally cleaned faster by circulation through porous and permeable sands 보다 by circulation through fractured, crystalline igneous and also metamorphic rocks. Answer: TRUE Diff: 117) A geyser deserve to erupt because the boil temperature that water decreases through depth below the water table. Answer: FALSE Diff: 118) Artesian groundwater problems can build in an lean aquifer v aquitards over and below. Answer: TRUE Diff: 117.4 brief Answer concerns 1) The ________ is the upper boundary surface of the saturation zone. Answer: water table Diff: 12) What property explains how conveniently groundwater will flow through a saturation porous material? Answer: permeability Diff: 13) very impermeable layers such together compacted clay or shale are well-known as ________. Answer: aquitards Diff: 1104) What term denotes the portion of open space or voids in a material? Answer: porosity Diff: 15) What feature originates wherein the water table intersects the floor surface? Answer: spring Diff: 16) In three words, describe the form of the water table roughly a pump well. Answer: cone the depression Diff: 17) What term defines a groundwater system in which water in a fine rises over the height of the aquifer without usage of a pump? Answer: artesian Diff: 18) Which ax denotes the physical pressure that pushes water though a saturated porous material? Answer: press gradient Diff: 19) What term describes a stream indigenous which water is infiltrating bottom to the water table? Answer: losing stream Diff: 110) which slender, conical speleothem grow from water dripping native the ceiling that a cavern? Answer: stalactite Diff: 111) A terrain exhibiting countless distinctive features related come subsurface systems of limestone is well-known as ________. Answer: karst topography Diff: 112) A present flowing right into a sinkhole is referred to as a ________. Answer: disappearing present Diff: 113) A hydrothermal vent that periodically or sometimes erupts a pillar of steam and hot water is referred to as a ________. Answer: geyser Diff: 114) A ________ is a circular to elliptical, close up door depressions in karst areas. Answer: sinkhole Diff: 11115) which speleothem grows increase from the floor the a cavern? Answer: stalagmite Diff: 116) What hydrogeological problem describes a neighborhood zone the saturated floor or rock over the key of the regional water table? Answer: perched water table Diff: 117) The unsaturated zone over the water table is additionally known as the ________. Answer: zone that aeration Diff: 118) Dripstone and travertine space composted of ________. Answer: calcium lead carbonate (CaC ) Diff: 117.5 critical Thinking questions Use finish sentences, correct spelling, and also the info presented in thing 17 come answer the questions below 1) "The drink water in our town is constantly cold, clear, and also pure since it comes from an artesian well." Briefly discuss the geologic validity that this statement. Back this idea wasn"t specifically questioned in chapter 17, offer a feasible reason or two as to why together statements are frequently made. Diff: 22) When evaluating the geology that a region for potential aquifers, what features or factors would friend consider? Also, what areas (based ~ above natural and human) factors would you avoid? Diff: 33) just how would you recognize areas of karst topography top top a topographic map without discovering the neighborhood bedrock geology? Also, what features of karst topography top top a topographic map can be misinterpreted as some other geologic feature? Diff: 31217.6 Visualization concerns 1) on the blanks listed beside every cross section above, describe what form of currently is represented. Arrows show direction of underground water flow.a) ________b) ________ Answer: a) obtaining stream b) shedding stream Diff: 1132) top top the cutaway political parties of the illustration below, areas shaded dark represent the zone of aeration, and areas that room lightly shaded represent the zone the saturation.

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All rock species are aquifers other than for the labeled aquitard. ~ above the blanks provided, to fill in the name of the labeling features.Answer: a) water table b) perched water table Diff: 13) What is the name of the localized lowering that the water table displayed in the diagram below?Answer: cone of depression Diff: 1144) What kind of topography is portrayed in the diagram below?Answer: karst topography Diff: 115