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algae: cellular respiration
Cellular respiration in algae, together in every organisms, is the procedure by which food molecules room metabolized to acquire chemical energy for...

Main metabolic processes

Biologists differ somewhat with respect come the names, descriptions, and the variety of stages of moving respiration. The overall process, however, have the right to be distilled right into three main metabolic step or steps: glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and also oxidative phosphorylation (respiratory-chain phosphorylation).


Glycolysis (which is likewise known as the glycolytic pathway or the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) is a succession of 10 chemical reactions following in many cells that breaks down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate (pyruvic acid) molecules. Energy released during the failure of glucose and also other organic fuel molecules from carbohydrates, fats, and also proteins throughout glycolysis is captured and stored in ATP. In addition, the compound nicotinamide adenine di nucleotide (NAD+) is converted to NADH during this step (see below). Pyruvate molecules created during glycolysis then go into the mitochondria, whereby they space each converted right into a compound well-known as acetyl coenzyme A, which climate enters the TCA cycle. (Some sources consider the counter of pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A as a distinct step, called pyruvate oxidation or the transition reaction, in the procedure of moving respiration.)


The generation the pyruvate v the process of glycolysis is the an initial step in fermentation.
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Tricarboxylic acid cycle

The TCA bike (which is likewise known as the Krebs, or citric acid, cycle) plays a central role in the breakdown, or catabolism, of necessary fuel molecules. The cycle is made up of eight measures catalyzed through eight different enzymes that create energy in ~ several various stages. Most of the energy derived from the TCA cycle, however, is caught by the compounds NAD+ and also flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and also converted later on to ATP. The products of a solitary turn the the TCA cycle consist of 3 NAD+ molecules, which are reduced (through the process of including hydrogen, H+) to the same number of NADH molecules, and also one FAD molecule, which is likewise reduced come a solitary FADH2 molecule. This molecules go on to fuel the 3rd stage of to move respiration, whereas carbon dioxide, which is additionally produced by the TCA cycle, is released as a rubbish product.

tricarboxylic mountain cycle
The eight-step tricarboxylic acid cycle.
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Oxidative phosphorylation

In the oxidative phosphorylation stage, every pair the hydrogen atoms gotten rid of from NADH and FADH2 offers a pair of electrons that—through the activity of a series of iron-containing hemoproteins, the cytochromes—eventually reduces one atom the oxygen to form water. In 1951 it was uncovered that the transfer of one pair of electrons to oxygen outcomes in the formation of three molecules the ATP.

Oxidative phosphorylation is the significant mechanism whereby the huge amounts of power in foodstuffs are conserved and also made available to the cell. The collection of steps through which electrons flow to oxygen patent a steady lowering of the energy of the electrons. This component of the oxidative phosphorylation phase is sometimes called the electron transport chain. Some descriptions of cellular respiration that emphasis on the prestige of the electron carry chain have adjusted the surname of the oxidative phosphorylation phase to the electron deliver chain.

The series of steps whereby electrons circulation to oxygen permits a progressive lowering of the energy of the electrons. This part of the oxidative phosphorylation phase is sometimes dubbed the electron transfer chain.

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The editors of Encyclopaedia civicpride-kusatsu.net This post was many recently revised and also updated by Kara Rogers.