Blends are comprised of two or much more single ingredient refrigerants. One of two situations will occur, depending on how strongly the various molecules are attracted to every other:

Azeotrope: a blend that behaves prefer a solitary component refrigerant. Once a blend forms an azeotrope, it displays unique and also unexpected properties.

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Zeotrope: a blend that behaves favor a mixture the the individual components. Zeotropes have actually predictable properties based upon combinations that the pure components’ properties.

In addition, that is sometimes useful to classify part blends as near-azeotropes. This blends have predictable mix properties; however, the difference between these properties and also what is observed because that single-component refrigerants is not that significant.

Many the the problems connected with device operation utilizing a blend will certainly not be noticeable through near-azeotropes.



Fractionation is the change in composition of a blend because one or more of the materials is shed or removed quicker than the other(s).

Two basic behaviors of refrigerant molecules aid explain why fractionation occurs.

1.Pure refrigerants exert pressure on the cylinder (or a system) due to the fact that the molecules are moving around. At higher temperatures they move about faster, which way more pressure. At lower temperatures there is much less movement, so reduced pressure.

Different refrigerants have various energies at the very same temperature, and therefore generate greater or reduced pressures.


2.Molecules that refrigerant are constantly moving from liquid to vapor and vapor to liquid at the surface ar of the liquid. Vapor and liquid in ~ equilibrium transport the same number of molecules ago and forth; boiling fluid transfers much more from liquid to vapor; and also condensing vapor transfers an ext from vapor to liquid.

Different refrigerants transfer ago and soon to the vapor at various rates.


When vapor is gotten rid of from a cylinder or system containing a zeotropic blend, two things space going come happen:

1.The vapor being eliminated is in ~ the wrong composition. It will certainly have an ext of the higher-pressure, higher-capacity refrigerant component.

2.The liquid that is left behind boils more of the high-pressure component the end of the liquid to change the vapor. Eventually, the liquid composition transforms because much more of the higher-pressure ingredient leaves compared to the bulk liquid composition.

In order to protect against charging the dorn composition and also fractionating the staying blend, zeotropic blends have to be gotten rid of from the cylinder as a liquid. This have the right to be done by transforming the cylinder end so the valve is top top the bottom, or forcing the product through a dip pipe to the valve.

Liquid charging walk not mean that liquid refrigerant should be pushed into the suction line of the system and also that that be enabled to cheese the compressor. After the initial charge into the high next of a system, the compressor can be started and charging can be perfect by flashing the refrigerant from fluid to vapor in the charging hose or across specially design valves.

Any an approach which permits the refrigerant to go to vapor prior to it access time the compressor have to work. Generally, the refrigerant demands to be included slowly in ~ this point.

A device at remainder will enable the refrigerant to pool and also the vapor to concerned an equilibrium concentration. Leaks that happen in vapor areas of the equipment will allow fractionation the the blend.

The worst case will happen when about fifty percent of the refrigerant charge has leaked.

Recharging the device after repair will an outcome in a blend with slightly diminished capacity and operating pressures. In smaller sized systems, wherein charge dimension is critical, it will be best to pull any type of remaining refrigerant and charge v fresh blend. In larger systems, friend will should make a decision even if it is the staying charge need to be traction or not.

Note: because that low-fractionation-potential blends, you will not see much transition in composition anyway, and also therefore, the charge can be topped turn off after fix without lose of properties.

In to run systems, it has been found that the circulation composition is the bulk blend composition. In liquid and suction lines there is no second phase, and in the warmth exchangers over there is a most turbulence, so leaks will shed both vapor and also liquid. Experimentation has shown that leaks from a running mechanism do not cause fractionation, and a typically cycling device will no fractionate much during the turn off cycle.

In other words, in most cases, servicing blends does no require full recovery the the charge.

System contents beware

Flooded evaporators
are designed to store a pool of boiling fluid refrigerant bordering a bundle of tubes. The water, brine, or product to it is in cooled flows through the tubes. The vapor which boils off this swimming pool is went back to the compressor, condensed, climate poured ago into the pool.

In the instance of zeotropic blends, the vapor i beg your pardon boils off this pool of refrigerant will certainly be in ~ the fractionated composition. If the nature at this composition differ substantially from what the compressor expects, then the device could construct high head pressures, high amperage draw at the compressor, reduced cooling effectiveness (capacity) in the evaporator, etc.

Normally, it is no recommended to usage blends in this form of system.

Suction accumulators are inserted in the suction line before the compressor to keep liquid from flowing into the compressor. The fluid slug is trapped in the accumulator whereby it can boil turn off to vapor, combining with other suction gas. Zeotropic blends will certainly fractionate in the accumulator, providing a short-lived spike of higher pressure vapor ago to the compressor.

Systems v suction accumulators must not it is in overcharged with the expectation the the accumulator will safeguard the compressor, since this may lead to constant pressure spikes.

Also, this kind of mechanism should never be charged by dumping liquid refrigerant into the suction line and enabling it to vaporize in the accumulator, because high-pressure trips might occur.Excerpted from “2000 Refrigerant referral Guide,” 3rd edition, from national Refrigerants, Philadelphia, PA. For more information, contact 800-262-0012.

Alkyl benzene oil — A artificial refrigeration oil similar to mineral oil; that offers far better low-temperature mixing with HCFCs.

Azeotrope — A mixture of 2 or much more refrigerants that acts as a single fluid. The materials of azeotropic mixtures will certainly not different under regular operating conditions.

Blend — A mixture of two or an ext refrigerant components.

CFC — Chlorofluorocarbon; a refrigerant made up of carbon atoms linked to only chlorine and also fluorine atoms. The typical CFCs are R-11, -12, -13, -113, -114, and also -115.

Disposal — The procedure leading to and also including (1) the discharge, deposit, dumping, or place of any kind of discarded appliance right into or on any type of land or water; (2) the disassembly of any appliance because that discharge, deposit, dumping, or placing of that is discarded ingredient parts right into or on any type of land or water; or (3) the disassembly of any type of appliance because that reuse that its component parts.

Elastomer — product which can be stretched or squeezed and, instantly on release of the stress, returns to its approximate dimensions.

Ester oil — A general term referring to the family of polyolester lubricants. These complex chemicals save on computer ester functional teams which make them more polar and thus an ext compatible v HFC refrigerants.

HCFC — Hydrochlorofluorocarbon; a refrigerant made up of carbon atoms linked to chlorine, fluorine, and hydrogen atoms. The common HCFCs space R-22, -123, -124, and also -142b.

HFC — Hydrofluorocarbon; a refrigerant made up of carbon atoms associated to fluorine and hydrogen only. The usual HFCs room R-134a, -125, -143a, -152a, -32, and -23.

Hygroscopic — A tendency for refrigeration oils to absorb humidity from the atmosphere.

Low-loss fitting — Any device that is to plan to develop a connection in between hoses, appliances, or recovery/recycling machines, i beg your pardon is designed to close instantly or will be closed manually when disconnected, thereby minimizing the relax of refrigerant indigenous hoses, appliances, and also recovery recycling machines.

Mineral oil — classic refrigeration oil refined from petroleum products, usually not compatible with brand-new HFC refrigerants.

Miscibility — capacity of a gas or liquid to dissolve uniformly (mix) in one more gas or liquid.

Ozone depletion — The discontinuity by cost-free chlorine radicals of the typical ozone creation/breakdown process which wake up in the upper atmosphere. The complimentary chlorine reasons ozone molecules to come apart, then ties increase the cost-free oxygen supplied to make an ext ozone. The result is a network decrease in the ozone concentration.

Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) oil — A general term that uses to a household of artificial oils based on polyalkylene glycol chemistry. PAGs space used generally with HFC refrigerants in the automotive air air conditioning industry.

Pumpdown (out) — The tap the money of all refrigerant indigenous the low side of a system by pump it right into either the condenser or the fluid receiver.

Reclaim — come reprocess refrigerant to at least the purity specified in the ARI traditional 700, Specifications for Fluorocarbon Refrigerants, and to verify this purity using mentioned analytical methods.

Recovery — To remove refrigerant native a system, nevertheless of condition, and store the in an exterior container without necessarily trial and error or processing the refrigerant in any type of way.

Recovery efficiency — The percent of refrigerant recovered compared to the complete amount in the appliance.

Recycle — to extract refrigerant native an appliance to attempt to clean water, oil, acidity, and also particulates native it. This procedures may not have to return the refrigerant to ARI 700 purity. The refrigerant might be went back to the same device after recycling.

Self-contained restore equipment — Recovery equipment that is qualified of removed refrigerant indigenous an appliance there is no the assistance of contents within the appliance.

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System-dependent restore equipment — Recovery devices that needs the help of components contained in one appliance to eliminate the refrigerant.

Zeotrope — A blend the behaves generally as a mixture of refrigerants. The properties are a combination of the individual ingredient properties, and also the vapor ingredient is different from the liquid, which disclosure fractionation and also temperature glide effects.