Presentation ~ above theme: "LEAVES(daun). The primary features of leaves: Photosyntesis Transpiration."— Presentation transcript:
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2 The primary features of leaves: Photosyntesis Transpiration
3 leaf Function: Leaves space the powerhouse the plants. In many plants, leaves room the significant site of food manufacturing for the plant. Frameworks within a leaf transform the energy in sunlight into chemical energy that the plant deserve to use as food. Chlorophyll is the molecule in pipeline that offers the power in sunshine to rotate water (H 2 O) and also carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ) into sugar and also oxygen gas (O 2 ). This procedure is dubbed photosynthesis. Leaves space the powerhouse that plants. In most plants, leaves are the major site of food production for the plant. Structures within a leaf convert the energy in sunlight right into chemical energy that the plant can use together food. Chlorophyll is the molecule in pipeline that uses the energy in sunlight to turn water (H 2 O) and also carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ) right into sugar and oxygen gas (O 2 ). This procedure is referred to as photosynthesis.
4 sheet Structure: A leaf is made of many layers that are sandwiched in between two layers of tough skin cell (called the epidermis). The epidermis additionally secretes a waxy substance dubbed the cuticle. This layers safeguard the sheet from insects, bacteria, and other pests. Amongst the epidermal cells space pairs of sausage-shaped safety cells. Each pair of safety cells creates a sharp (called stoma; the plural is stomata). Gases enter and also exit the leaf v the stomata.
5 Dicotyledonous pipeline Is composed of two major parts: tongue or lamina Petiole or stalk Netted venation
6 Monocotyledonous leaves: Is divided into 2 parts: Sheath blade Paralled venation
7 There are two kind of leaves:
8 varieties of leaves Simple: not divided into leaflets; leaf created of one tongue Compound: is composed of 2 or an ext leaflets Pinnately Compound: feather-like; leaflets along each side of a usual axis.
9 Bipinnately Compound: main and an additional divisions space pinnate. Palmately Compound: 3 or more leaflets radiating native a typical point. Trifoliate: three leaflets
10 single Needle Scale-like Awl-shaped
11 Cordate: heart-shaped. Alternate: leaves room arranged singly at different heights and also on various sides the the stem. Opposite: leaves are directly across from each various other on the stem.
13 Elliptic: broadest in the middle and also narrower at each end. Flabellate: fan-like. Lanceolate: much longer than wide, broadest listed below the middle and also tapering to the apex.
14 Obovate: inversely ovate, broadest above the middle Ovate: egg-shaped, broadest below the middle large Ovate: wide, egg-shaped
15 sheet Margins sheet Margins: pipeline come in countless sizes and shapes; lock are frequently used to aid identify plants. Some leaves room flat and also wide; others room spiky and thin. Tree spines (like cactus spines) space actually amendment leaves.
16 Plant parts – leaf plan shapes shade Vein pattern kind – an easy or link Margin surface
17 Leaf setup – straightforward
18 Leaf setup – link
19 Leaf form
20 Vein sample Pinnate Palmate Parallel Dichotomous
21 leaf Margin
22 Leaf surface Glabrous Pubescent Villous Tomentose Scabrous Glaucous Rugose Glandular There are 8 common leaf surfaces.
23 Leaf surface ar – Glabrous The surface is smooth, not hairy.
24 Leaf surface – Pubescent Short, soft hair cover the surface.
25 Leaf surface – Tomentose covered with wool-like hair.
26 Leaf surface – Scabrous spanned with short, prickly hairs.
27 Leaf surface – Glaucous covered with a bluish-white waxy substance.
28 Leaf surface – Rugose surface is wrinkly.
29 Leaf surface – Glandular Glands filled with oil or resin sheathe the surface.
30 Anatomy of the leaf leaf: In the pipeline of many trees, three distinctive tissue layers deserve to be discerned in their leaves. These are: 1. The epidermis through its cuticle and stomata 2. The mesophyll where many of the chloroplasts space found and photosynthesis takes location chloroplasts space found and also photosynthesis takes location 3. The sheet veins which move water and inorganic 3. The leaf veins which transport water and also inorganic compounds right into the leaf, and organic compound compounds into the leaf, and organic compounds developed by photosynthesis away from the leaf, to created by photosynthesis far from the leaf, to other parts the the plant. Other parts the the plant.
31 Cross section of a leaf, reflecting the anatomical features essential to the examine of photosynthesis: stoma, guard cell, mesophyll cells, and also vein
33 Epidermis The epidermal tissue features in prevention of water loss and acts together a barrier to fungi and other invaders. Thus, epidermal cells are closely packed, with small intercellular space. To further cut down top top water loss, numerous plants have a waxy cuticle layer deposited on peak of the epidermal cells. Epidermal tissuecuticleepidermal tissuecuticle Guard cell come facilitate gas exchange between the inner components of leaves, stems, and fruits, plants have a collection of openings recognized as stomata (singular stoma). They regulate exchange of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide through the stoma. Stomata
34 Collenchyma cells support the plant. This cells space charcterized by thickenings of the wall, they space alive at maturity. They have tendency to happen as part of vascular bundles or on the corners the angular stems. Collenchyma Sclerenchyma cells assistance the plant. They often occur as bundle cap fibers. Sclerenchyma cell are defined by thickenings in their second walls. They space dead in ~ maturity. A common form of schlerenchyma cell is the fiber. Sclerenchyma
35 Xylem Xylem is a term used to woody (lignin- impregnated)walls of certain cells the plants. Xylem cells have tendency to conduct water and minerals from roots to leaves. While parenchyma cells do happen within what is commonly termed the "xylem" the much more identifiable cells, tracheids and also vessel elements, tend to stain red with Safranin-O. Tracheids space the much more primitive of the 2 cell types, emerging in the more quickly vascular plants. Tracheids are long and also tapered, through angled end-plates that connect cell to cell. Vessel elements are shorter, lot wider, and also lack finish plates. They take place only in angiosperms, the most recently evolved huge group of plants Xylemlignintracheidsvessel aspects angiosperms Xylemlignintracheidsvessel elements angiosperms
36 Phloem cell conduct food from pipeline to remainder of the plant. They space alive at maturity and also tend to stain environment-friendly (with the stain rapid green). Phloem cells are usually located external the xylem. The 2 most typical cells in the phloem space the companion cells and also sieve cells. Companion cell retain your nucleus and control the adjacent sieve cells. Liquified food, as sucrose, flows through the sieve cells.companion cellssieve cells
37 A component of The sheet 1. Plastids: A green leaf is green since of the presence of a team of pigments known as chlorophylls. Minute structures dubbed plastids save the chlorophyll in ~ the leaf. 2. Carotinoid pigments (yellow and also orange) are likewise found in plastids. The carotenoids occure, in addition to the chlorophyll pigments, in tiny frameworks - referred to as plastids - within the cells of leaves. Periodically they are in such abundance iin the leaf that they give a plant a yellow-green color, Carotenoids are in countless living things, offering 3. Anthocyanin colours (reds and also purples) happen in the sap of cells. The anthocyanins temporarily color the edges of some of the really young pipeline as castle unfold native the sprout in beforehand spring. They also give the familiar shade to such common fruits as cranberries, red apples, blueberries, cherries, strawberries, and also plums.
38 basic leaf types needle-shaped Ferns have actually fronds.Fernsfronds Conifer pipeline are commonly needle-, awl-, or scale-shapedConifer Angiosperm (flowering plant) leaves: the standard kind includes stipules, a petiole, and a lamina.Angiosperm Lycophytes have actually microphyll leaves.Lycophytesmicrophyll Sheath leaves (type uncovered in most grasses).Sheath grasses Other dedicated leaves (such together those of Nepenthes)Nepenthes Scale-shaped pipeline
39 stellate trichomes trichomes top top the lower surface the a Coleus
40 Opening and also closing that the stomata through the combine guard cell controls the gas exchange rate. In some cases, the security cells are supported through the subsidiary cells. Guard cell act together ports in between the environment and also the inner of the leaf. Once the guard cell accumulate water they become turgescent and also open. Opening and also closing subsequently is managed by irradiate conditions, air humidity, temperature and the CO2 concentration. Guard cells, in contrast to other epidermis cells, execute possess chloroplasts.
41 Stomata open once the interior pressure the the guard cell rises as a an outcome of water absorption. The pressure increases from 1.5 to 3.0 mega Pascal. Due to the fact that the wall surfaces of the guard cells are reasonably flexible in ~ the next of the stoma, the guard cells increase vertically and the stoma subsequentely opens.
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43 framework of a chloroplast
44 Pea leaf Stoma, Vicea sp.
45 pointer of the leaf
46 sheet Abscission The development of a definite abscission zone throughout a petiole or fruit stem is responsible because that leaf loss or fruit fall The function of the abcission zone : - come bring around the loss of the leaf or various other plant - come bring around the autumn of the sheet or various other plant component part - to defend the region of the stem indigenous which - to protect the an ar of the stem native which the leaf has fallen versus insect damages or the leaf has actually fallen versus insect damages or rot brought about by bacteria or fungi rot brought about by bacteria or fungi