Hypochlorite is a monovalent inorganic anion additionally known together chlorine oxoanion have actually a chemistry formula ClO-. It deserve to make hypochlorite salts by combine them v a number of cations. These salts are handled in aqueous type because they mainly remain rough in pure form.

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In this tutorial, we will talk about Hypochlorite(ClO-) lewis structure, molecular geometry, polarity, hybridization, etc.

Hypochlorite salts are supplied as the bleaching agents, disinfection, and for water treatment. This salts developed when chlorine reacts v alkaline metals hydroxide.

⇒ Cl2 + 2 NaOH → NaCl + NaClO + H2O

Properties that Hypochlorite ion

It has actually a molar massive of 51.449 g/mol.The conjugate acid of Hypochlorite ion is Hypochlorous acid(HClO).It is soluble in water.The Cl-O distance in ClO− is 210 pm.
Name of MoleculeHypochlorite ion
Chemical formulaClO-
Molecular geometry of ClO-Linear
Electron geometry of ClO-Tetrahedral
Total Valence electron because that ClO-14


How to attract lewis framework for ClO-(Hypochlorite)

Lewis structure represents the structure of atom or molecules with their valence electron. It is a two-dimensional model that helps us to know, how plenty of bond pairs and a lone pair a molecule contains.

Lewis framework of ClO- is very simple to draw as it has only two atoms(chlorine and also oxygen), we need to just stand for the valence electron around them and complete your octet.

Let’s see exactly how to attract the ClO- lewis framework with a straightforward approach. 

Follow some procedures for illustration the lewis dot structure of ClO-

1. Count complete valence electron in ClO-

In the very first step, we will recognize how many valence electrons are easily accessible for illustration the lewis framework of ClO-. So, counting the valence electron of every atom in ClO- then include them.

As chlorine belongs come the 17th regular group and oxygen 16th. Hence, the valence electron because that chlorine is 7 and also for oxygen, that is 6.

⇒ Total variety of the valence electron in chlorine = 7

⇒ Total variety of the valence electron in oxygen = 6

∴ Total variety of valence electrons accessible for drawing the lewis structure of ClO- = 7 + 6 + 1 = 14 valence electrons  <∴one oxygen atom, one chlorine, and also one an unfavorable charge that count as a one valence electron>


2. Uncover the the very least electronegative atom and placed it at center

If you desire then you can avoid this action to attract the lewis structure of simple diatomic molecules like ClO-, Cl2, Br2, etc. Since in these varieties of molecules, over there are just two atom present.

So, it doesn’t issue which atom is much less or an ext electronegative as we need to place both atoms surrounding to each other.

There is no point in stating the main atom that the diatomic molecule. Simply place both atom in a straight line.


3. Affix outer atoms to main atom through a solitary bond

Just avoid the hatchet “outer atom” and also “central atom” for illustration the ClO- lewis structure. And place the single bond between chlorine and also oxygen atom.


Now counting the valence electron in the over structure. Single bond way two-electron and in the over structure, just one single bond is used.

Hence, only 2 valence electrons are used in the over structure from 14 full valence electrons accessible for illustration the lewis structure of ClO-.

(14 – 2) = 12

We have left with 12 valence electrons more.

4. Location remaining valence electrons beginning from outer atom first

Here we simply need to place the staying valence electron approximately oxygen and also chlorine v the score of filling their outer shell, for this reason achieving the octet.

So, put the valence electron roughly the chlorine and oxygen.


As you watch in the over structure, we put 6 electrons approximately chlorine and oxygen, as each the them already sharing 2 electrons v the assist of a solitary bond in between them.

Hence, both the atoms(chlorine and oxygen) have 8 electrons in their outer shell, So, lock completed their octet comfortably.

As us know, we had a complete of 14 valence electrons accessible for the ClO- lewis structure, and in the over structure, we have used 14 valence electrons (12 dots + one solitary bond that consists of two-electron).

(14 – 14) = 0 valence electrons

So, every atom in ClO- molecule perfect octet, we likewise used all valence electrons that space available.

Now we just need come verify the stability of the over ClO- lewis structure with the formal charge concept.

5. Examine the security with the aid of a formal fee concept

The framework with the formal charge close to zero or zero is the best and stable lewis structure.

We will examine the formal fee on the 4th step structure.

⇒ formal charge = (valence electrons – lone pair electrons – 1/2bonded pair electrons)

For chlorine atom

⇒ Valence electron the chlorine = 7

⇒ Lone pair electrons on chlorine = 6

⇒ bonded pair electrons approximately chlorine = 2

F.C. ~ above chlorine atom = (7 – 6 – 2/2) = 0

For oxygen atom

⇒ Valence electron that oxygen = 6

⇒ Lone pair electron on oxygen = 6

⇒ external inspection pair electrons approximately oxygen = 2

F.C. ~ above oxygen atom = (6 – 6 – 2/2) = -1


Hence, the over structure is many stable as one atom contains 0 official charges and also another atom -1.

Also, the in its entirety formal charge(-1) that the above structure is equal to the an adverse ion charge(-1) the ClO- molecule.


ClO- lewis structure

This is the best and stable lewis framework of ClO- with a minimal formal fee on every atom.

As us know, a ClO- molecule is formed from just two atoms, thus it is also called a diatomic molecule. “All diatomic molecule are linear, which is the most basic spatial plan of atoms.”

The molecular shape of ClO- is straight as both atoms(chlorine and oxygen) are located in a straight line. Also, both atoms contain 3 lone bag on each, and also only one link is present between them, hence, the repelling between lone pair – lone pair and also lone pair-bond pair are equal native both sides.

Therefore, the final shape of ClO- i do not care linear.


The molecular form of ClO- is linear and the geometry that the electron of that is tetrahedral according to the VSEPR theory. ClO- has an AXN3 generic formula.

Bonded atomsLone pairGeneric formulaHybridizationMolecular geometryElectron geometry
30AX3Sp²Trigonal planarTrigonal planar
21AX2NSp²BentTrigonal planar
12AXN2Sp²LinearTrigonal planar
31AX3NSp³Trigonal pyramidTetrahedral
32AX3N2Sp³dT-shapedTrigonal bipyramidal

Hybridization that ClO-

“Hybridization is characterized as the ide of mixing two atomic orbitals v the same power levels to offer a degenerated new form of orbitals.”

To acquire the hybridization of ClO- molecule, just uncover the steric variety of it.

The steric number is same to the number of bonded attached come the main atom + lone pair top top that main atom.

In the instance of ClO- molecule, just let any type of of the atoms (chlorine or oxygen) as a main atom.

Let i think oxygen as the central atom-

∴ Steric variety of ClO- = (Number of bonded atoms attached to oxygen + Lone pair top top oxygen)

According come the lewis structure of ClO-, only one external inspection atom is attached to oxygen and 3 lone pairs are existing on it.

∴ Steric number of ClO- = (1 + 3) = 4

Steric numberHybridization

So, for a steric number of 4, we obtain the Sp3 hybridization ~ above the oxygen atom in the ClO- molecule.

A polar molecule is created by the unequal circulation of charges carried out on atom of a molecule whereas non-polar molecules have actually an equal distribution of fees on atoms that helps come cancel out the dipole moment produced on them.

A polar molecule has actually some net dipole moment whereas a non-polar molecule has zero dipole moment.

Now the question arises, Is ClO- polar or nonpolar in nature? ClO- is a non-polar molecule due to the fact that it contains two atoms(chlorine and also oxygen) that space arranged symmetrically. As result of this, dipole moments generated on both sides cancel the end each various other making that a non-polar molecule.

Key point out of hypochlorite ion

Hypochlorite ion salts developed when alkaline earth metal hydroxide reacts with chlorine.The most essential salt formed from ClO- is sodium hypochlorite salt, this is also called bleach supplied in various family works.Sodium hypochlorite is a solid liquid oxidizing agent and has a greenish color.When hypochlorite contact with necessary material, that sparks.Hypochlorite is very toxic that causes irritation in the eyes, skin burning, or other wellness hazards.It starts come decompose roughly 40ºC.Hypochlorite salts space unstable in their pure form.

Uses the Hypochlorite ion

Hypochlorite ion is provided as a water therapy agent.The most crucial use that hypochlorite ion is for, bleaching and also as disinfection material.In households, the is provided to whiten clothes and clean water.Industrially, it is offered to eliminate negative smells, bleaching, and also surface purification.It is additionally used to remove stains.It is one of the important components of miscellaneous sanitizers.


Is ClO- mountain or base?

Hypochlorite ion(ClO-) is a basic in nature together it accepts the one proton when dissolved in water and also formed a Hypochlorous acid(HClO). And anything the accepts the proton in an aqueous equipment is stated to be basic in nature.

⇒ ClO– + H2O → HClO + OH–

Generally, hypochlorite ion(ClO-) is a conjugate basic of Hypochlorous mountain (HClO).

How countless lone pairs and bond pairs electrons are present in ClO- lewis structure?

Lone pairs electrons room the electrons in the lewis diagram that don’t take parts in chemistry bonding which way they don’t type any chemical bond.

Whereas the link pair electrons room the electron in the lewis diagram that kind a chemical bond between atoms, lock are additionally called common pair electrons.

So, the complete lone pair electron in ClO- lewis structure is 12 (3 – 3 lone pairs top top chlorine and oxygen).

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And external inspection pair electron in ClO- lewis framework is only 2 (one single bond between chlorine and oxygen).