It to be a cold night in Russia’s Sakha Republic. Tiny Oymyakon, widely concerned today as the coldest town on Earth, was provided to going around its business in near-arctic temperatures. On February 6, 1933, its inhabitants braved the lowest temperature ever before measured in an populated location: ninety degrees below zero, Fahrenheit.*

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The coldest ar on Earth

Source: In the many brutal corners of our planet, much from human settlement, the frozen is more intense. High ~ above a ridge top top the eastern Antarctic Plateau, in shadowy pockets explored just by satellite data, overnight temperatures bottom the end around an adverse one-hundred and thirty-five degrees Fahrenheit. These space the coldest problems ever recorded on Earth. Earth, though, is a hospitable planet. Because that true frigidity, look to the outer solar system. Triton, an icy pink moon orbiting the gas huge Neptune, clocks in at nearly four hundreds degrees below zero! top top its surface, extraterrestrial volcanoes blast their gaseous guts the end in jet up to five miles high. The volcanic ejecta crystallize immediately and snow under to the frozen people far below. Proof from Voyager 2 shows that these large plumes are mostly comprised of nitrogen– the main ingredient in the waiting you’re breathing right now!

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Global shade mosaic of Triton, documented by Voyager 2, 1989. Geyser plumes space visible as dark streaks.

Source: At 3 hundred and also twenty-one degrees below zero, fluid nitrogen is chillier than the most frigid Arctic night. The a cryogenic substance that would certainly fit in through Triton’s weather far better than ours own. Nitrogen on planet is generally a gas, however it’s possible to condensation it into liquid kind in the lab. As you have the right to imagine, as soon as air meets liquid nitrogen, that cools under fast. Water molecules in the chilled air condense right into droplets visible together clouds or fog. This could sound familiar! It’s carefully related come the system that causes clouds to type in the sky, a process we modeled in the lab not too long ago. Clouds are born once air cools down enough for rely water molecules to condense. This is why you see fog when you press a heat breath from her lungs out right into the environment on a cold day, or when you carry something cold into call with warmth air. Humid air, ripe through plenty the water molecules, produce extra-thick fog. Inspect out the cloud cover created by introducing liquid nitrogen into a damp poolside environment!

*All temperatures quoted room in degrees Fahrenheit.