The principle of structure and function, additionally referred come as form and function, cuts across many scientific and engineering disciplines. Scientists might wish to understand just how the structure of an organism or type of issue is related to exactly how it behaves or what it does. Designers need to keep in mental the intended duty of a design when occurring its structure. The way in which a structure functions, whether natural or design by humans, relies on how key parts are shaped and the relationships between those parts. Conversely, type is likewise dependent ~ above function. The prestige of structure and function is reliant top top scale. For example, understanding the intricacies the the structure of DNA is important when researching molecular biology, however is no as vital when expertise the biomechanics of exactly how an biology swims. To understand exactly how an organism swims, the framework and function of the organism’s skeleton and also muscles are of primary importance.

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In marine and also aquatic science, scientists study framework and role at a selection of scales. Because that example, marine biologists interested in exactly how fish are able to endure in subzero water temperatures without freezing might examine the framework and duty of molecules like antifreeze proteins (Fig. 2.18). Marine chemists might seek to determine the structure of a molecule produced by algae, in order come determine just how it could be provided as a medication to act diseases. Ocean designers must store in mind the intended function of a design, in order to assist determine style features. For example, a submarine that will be navigated by a human being would be designed in different way than a remotely activate vehicle.

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Image courtesy the Steven G. Johnson from Wikipedia

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Fig. 2.18. (B) Molecular structure of the ocean pout’s antifreeze protein.

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Image courtesy that Protein Data financial institution (PDB) and also Sonnichsen, F.D., DeLuca, C.I., Davies, P.L., Sykes, B.D

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The framework defines that framework and role can it is in explored starting in the early on grades, using basic examples from the realms of biological or engineering. For example, students can examine why many chairs space designed with four legs because that stability, or just how tooth shape is related to the types of foods different pets eat. As students progression through the grades, they have the right to understand systems that are more complex, through multiple parts, or that space not conveniently observed and are interpreted in regards to models. Students with a much more developed sense of framework and function should it is in able to apply this principle to determine just how unknown systems occupational or to design systems to meet engineering criteria. Similar to other crosscutting concepts, structure and duty should be clearly taught and referred to across disciplines.