Before the human being War I, women commonly played the duty of the homemaker. Ladies were judged by your beauty fairly than by their ability. Their position and status to be directed towards preserving the yearly duties that the family and children. This duties had cleaning and caring because that the house, caring for the young, food preparation for the family, maintaining a yard, and sewing clothing for all. Females had functioned in textile industries and also other industries as far ago as 1880, yet had been kept out of hefty industries and also other positions involving any real responsibility. Just prior to the war, women started to break far from the classic roles they had played.

You are watching: What did factory managers expect women to do when men returned home from the war?

As men left their tasks to offer their nation in battle overseas, women changed their jobs. Females filled many jobs the were lugged into existence by wartime needs. As a result, the number of women employed greatly increased in many industries. In the U.S. Over there were, before the war, end eight million females in paid occupations. ~ the war began, not only did their numbers raised in common lines that work, however as one newspaper stated, “There has been a suddenly influx the women right into such inexplicable occupations as bank clerks, ticket sellers, elevator operator, chauffeur, street car conductor, rail trackwalker, section hand, locomotive wiper and oiler, locomotive dispatcher, block operator, attract bridge attendant, and employment in machine shops, steel mills, powder and ammunition factories, aircraft works, boots blacking and farming.”<1> numerous of these females were married, and some were mothers whose husbands or older sons had gone to front. Women were also seen as vital resources for wartime aids, and various wartime slogans such as “You need to aid nation in the war”<2> and “Everyone needs to be a helper”<3> emphasized patriotism and created the atmosphere for women’s active involvement in numerous industries. By spring through assorted newspapers including the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and also the Seattle Times, date from 1917 to 1918 together my main primary resources for the research, I began to recognize the role that women played during human being War I.

A. General feminine tasks

also though plenty of women were in high demand for industries where previously men were dominant, long-established feminine jobs were still common during the war. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer and Seattle Times had a complete listing of open up positions for basic housework and other general residential jobs. The war actually created an ext domestic jobs due to the fact that many women who worked in factories and outside their houses were no able to care well enough for their children. Help wanted ads and also situation want ads feather for general housework were an extremely easy to uncover in newspaper “help wanted” sections. Ads together as: “Widow: 40; very good appearance, whose just support has actually gone to war would like some light job-related to aid out”<4> and “Wanted – reputable neat college girl to assist basic housework. Quite home”<5> were evidence for the truth that over there were numerous women, nevertheless of age and also status, who were willing to work, one of two people to help nation to success the war or come sustain the life of their household in absence of their husband and also father.

B. Boost in war emergency work

As more and more men were drafted and also had to leaving their jobs, the U.S. Government and various industries were seriously looking for female workers who could replace their men’s jobs. Especially throughout 1917 and 1918, there to be a vast number of demands because that female stenographers, telegraphers, and also phone operators. The Women’s Defense league was likewise placing a lot of effort to to fill the gap. Potential telegraphers had actually to discover the code v memorization or through familiarizing us to carry out their work-related efficiently. One newspaper wrote, “Women are much more apt than males in this heat of work.”<6> The various railroad suppliers of the nation employed hundred of capable women operators, due to the fact that they were known to be not only skillful, but additionally dependable. In many newspapers, ads searching for stenographers and also other clerical works were boosting over time. In “situation wanted” part of the newspapers, two thirds of the complete ads were in search of female stenographers, an instance being, “Thoroughly experienced bookkeeper, cashier, and stenographer, six years with last certain in charge of books and collections, desire place of responsibility.”<7> obvious in this ad, females were willing to take an ext responsible jobs and were ending up being not just a substitute job force, but skillful workers. The federal government was additionally in require of countless wartime positions open to women to occupational as federal government clerks, stenographers, and telegraphers.

C. Red Cross, Patriotic League, and also YWCA

Organizations such as the Red Cross, Patriotic League, and also YWCA likewise made efforts in supporting wartime hardships that the nation might face. The Red Cross arranged non-professional females to help in relief work. To help the battle effort, countless women join the Red Cross as nurses. If they to be in the Red Cross, they rolling bandages, knitted socks, and also worked in army hospitals. Most of the ladies were wives and mothers that soldiers of all classes. The Red Cross war council likewise created a women’s bureau, which appointed a national advisory committee of women that made an effort to recruit every easily accessible woman in the campaign to make enough funds and also supplies. Women in the Red cross were also helpful in recruiting males who had actually not join the war. One method was by mirroring a guy in civilian garments with white feathers together a note of cowardice. Another method was by making women speak at public meetings, encouraging others to have nothing to perform with guys who had actually not join the war. Women likewise went end seas together members the the Voluntary help Detachment of the Red Cross. Volunteering brought them the end of the house and into the public. Women had actually no problem filling the gaps left by males who saw war. The Red Cross continued to encourage numerous women to join the Red cross by saying “It’s the patriotic duty that every man, woman, and child to join the Red Cross. Why wait to it is in asked? be a volunteer.”<8>

The Patriotic League additionally organized girls for wartime activities. A branch the the Patriotic League, the national Organization because that Girls, which was energetic in social organization work and war services. The was arranged in Seattle in 1918 come organize the city’s patriotic girl for actual war activities. One editorial piece in the Seattle Argus newspaper covered the story the young girl who had donated bed shirts come the Red Cross through the money that they had actually made in ~ work. One article pointed the end that, “Hundreds – most likely thousands space doing their utmost to assist win the war. They space the personal soldiers.”<9> Girls and women to be soldiers armed with patriotism and hard work.

The Young ladies Christian Association’s northwestern ar committee was likewise concerned through the requirements of the war. The committee occasionally debated the good increase in the duties that employment organ of the YWCA due to the fact that of the war. In those discussions they involved the conclusion the training girl to take it the place of the guys was necessary. One newspaper wrote, “The requirement of training girl to take it the ar of men, and additionally work in link with the hostess dwellings at Camp Lewis, Vancouver barracks and also Bremerton, has made as numerous demands top top the Northwest.”<10> Further advancement in the advance of women’s occupational was strengthened through the tap the money of millions of men from the American industry.

D. Non-traditional jobs

Before the wartime, the was inexplicable in this nation for ladies to enroll in higher courses that mathematics because the women’s role wasn’t to occupational in male dominated industries. Therefore, getting higher education and also obtaining specific skills wasn’t a common road that many women followed. During civilization War I, however, women functioned in basically every ar of industry. Papers started come cover an ext women’s work related articles, assist ads, and also spoke out around women’s good successes in education, sports, and also various other areas in society. There was the example of one Argentinean woman that had come to be a polite engineer, and was praised in U.S. Newspapers, mirroring the breakthrough of women’s statuses visible through the period of war. Females were replacing men’s task such together railroad workers, auto drivers, and other maker operators. One newspaper provided that 4,000 ladies were working for the Pennsylvania Railroad. “In 5 months, the number enhanced from 1,494 to 3,700.”<11> One newspaper ns read had several articles about women rail workers’ accounts. Some of them questioned the require for ladies workers top top the railroads, whereas some of the articles were talking about the disagreement in between employers and also women employees because of the unlike pay and poor functioning conditions, even though lock performed the same type of jobs that men had done prior to they saw the war. Females were, “wielding picks and shovels on the American Railroad because of shortage of males for work.”<12> Some ladies track workers likewise maintained the roadbed of the Pennsylvania railroad between brand-new York and also Pittsburgh. The chairman of the company, “…testified before the Interstate business Commission, offered this instance of the challenges the railroads challenged in stop their men (due to the draft).”<13> Women additionally held countless jobs besides functioning in factories the were traditional men’s’ work. Lock assumed positions of doctors, lawyers, bankers, and also civil servants. Harvesting grain, to run businesses, and driving trucks to be all common jobs for women to take. Because of the battle demands, the role of women changed and lock had brand-new attitudes.

Working conditions of mrs workers

By the so late 1918, so numerous men checked out war that women had to take over their jobs. Labor unions fought hard against hiring females in factories. Ladies were paid fifty percent the incomes of men and also worked in conditions that were periodically dangerous and unhealthy. In supplies plants, mountain fumes native high explosives damaged workers’ lungs. In addition, it additionally turned their skin bright yellow. Hundreds of women functioned long hours filling shells with explosives. Inadvertently explosions were always a risk. Tiny effort to be made to ease the readjust from functioning in the house to the work-related place. Few employers detailed childcare for functioning mothers or even collection aside commodes for female workers. Female employees were also less unionized 보다 male workers, “This was since they had tendency to perform part-time work and to work-related in smaller sized firms, which tended to be less unionized.”<14> Also, existing union were often hostile to female workers.

Feminist pressure on developed unions and also the formation of separate women"s unions threatened to threaten men-only unions. Still, women’s unions began to grow, “The national Women’s profession Union league representing 150,000 organized working women have met together for counsel and also for action.”<15> However, the war did not raise women"s wages. Employers got approximately wartime equal pay policies by employing number of women to replace one man, or by splitting skilled tasks right into several less experienced stages.

Military auxiliary jobs

A. Parenting

Young women and also girls functioned as nurses during world War I. Aid wanted ads looking for nurses increased as job passed by, “Girl: 16 years, wants a position as a nurse.”<16> once the United claims entered people War ns in April 1917, the Navy had 160 nurses on active duty. Over the next year and a half, this number increased more than eight-fold together the Nurse Corps increased to accomplish the war"s demands, “Growth was gradual, through 345 Navy registered nurses serving by mid-1917, 155 of them members that the U.S. Naval Reserve Force.”<17> Young females volunteered to sign up with the Voluntary aid Detachment (VAD) and very first Aid education Yeomanry (FANY). VAD"s come from a selection of backgrounds: cooks, residential servants, laundry workers etc. Their medical training was basic, yet the truth that they checked out the war zone intended that lock could assist badly injured soldiers and give them simple medical treatment. VAD"s go not gain paid, together it to be a voluntarily appointment. Those that joined the FANY"s had a much less thrilling time 보다 VAD’s. They had actually to drive an ambulance and run soup kitchens because that the soldiers and also helped to organize baths because that those soldiers offered some time turn off from the former line.

B. The Women’s land Army

v so numerous men away fighting, someone had actually to carry in the harvests and keep the farms going. The government decided that much more women would have to become an ext involved in creating food and goods to support their battle effort. The Women"s Land army played a critical role in doing this once the guys who would normally work ~ above the ranches never reverted or returned disabled indigenous the war. Among the comment made by women in the WLA was that, “Their feet were never dry even in dried weather - simply because they had to work beforehand in the morning and also the dew on the grass would go into the boots v the lace holes.”<18>

C. Factory Workers

few of the most crucial work done by women remained in the ammunition factories. With the young males away fighting, this an extremely important work-related was done by women. It was very dangerous to job-related with explosive chemicals because it intended that one explosion in a manufacturing facility could cause many various other ones. Not only women functioned in ammunition factories yet they additionally worked as power an equipment operators and also in navy station an equipment shops together well. One instance being, “Authority to employ women for work in the various shops at the marine yard has actually been obtained from civicpride-kusatsu.net D.C. And according to commandant of the marine station, the bulk of 1,000 employees because that shop work, because that whom phone call are now out, will certainly be women.”<19> castle were offered to some extent in all of the shops, yet most of the moment the females employees worked in the machinery, supply, and also public functions departments. Various other manufacturing sectors were likewise in need of woman power an equipment operators as result of the lack of male workers. In initiative to supply an ext skilled female workers right into factories, schools had been collection up to train females in upholstering, trimming, and other work-related calling for experienced operatives. One manufacturing facility manager to be quoted together saying, “Women were viewed as rapid learners and that in part departments they are an ext efficient 보다 men, back those departments have actually been use men solely for years.”<20>


people War ns was to provide women a possibility to display a male-dominated society that they might do an ext than simply lug up children and stay in ~ home. In civilization War I, ladies played a vital role in keeping soldiers equipped v ammunition and in plenty of senses they kept the nation moving v their aid in miscellaneous industries. Through so plenty of young guys volunteering to sign up with the army, and also with so plenty of casualties in the war, a room was created in employment and also women were referred to as on to to fill these gaps. Civilization War i was come prove a transforming point because that women. Before the war, women had actually no socio-economic power at all. By the end of the war, women had actually proved the they were simply as necessary to the war initiative as men had actually been. Women uncovered employment in transportation consisting of the railroads and also driving cars, ambulances, and trucks, nursing, factory making ammunition, on ranches in the Women"s soil Army, in shipyards etc. Before the war, this jobs had actually been for men only through the exception of nursing.

as time pass by, I might see the progress just how women started to knife a an excellent deal of respect through their energetic participation in labor and culture during the wartime crisis. The see seen and also the voices heard through these old papers that ns researched verified a clear tendency of a much more broad and also accepting women’s role in America. Women lastly had the chance to display the world that they had actually just as lot to contribute and had the best to take on as much responsibility as the men.

See more: 2004 Nissan Sentra 1.8 Oil Capacity Of A Nissan Sentra 1, 2004 Nissan/Datsun Sentra 1

Bibliography General Readership Newspaper Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Microfilm editions indigenous 1917 to 1918: Suzzallo library UW. Seattle Times. Microfilm editions indigenous 1917 come 1918: Suzzallo library UW. Seattle Argus. Microfilm edition for a year that 1918: Suzzallo library UW. civicpride-kusatsu.net Standard. Microfilm edition from 1915 to 1918: Suzzallo library UW. Labor and also Radical Newspaper Co-operative News. Microfilm edition from 1914 to 1918: Suzzallo library UW. Northwest labor Journal. Microfilm edition native 1914 come 1918: Suzzallo library UW. Seattle Union Record. Microfilm edition for a year that 1918: Suzzallo library UW. Secondary Sources http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/women_employment_02.shtml. Accessed might 10, 2003 http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/prs-tpic/nurses/nrs-e.htm. Accessed might 19, 2003 http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wland.htm. Accessed may 19,2003 http://www.nurse-at-war.org. Accessed might 23, 2003.