The absolute worth of a number is its street from zero. For any type of x, |x| is characterized as follows: | x |= x, if x > 0, and also | x |= −x, if x

Acute Angle An edge whose measure up is higher than 0 degrees and also less 보다 90 degrees.

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Acute Triangle A triangle in i m sorry all three angles are acute angles.

Example of one acute angle

Addition residential property of Equality If a = b, then a + c = b + c. This building states that adding the very same amount to both members of an equation preservation the equality.

Additive identity A residential property that claims that for any kind of number x, x + 0 = x, zero is the additive identity.

Additive Inverse For any kind of number x, there exists a number −x, such that x + −x= 0. This way that over there exists a pair of numbers (like 5 and also –5) that room the very same distance indigenous zero on the number line, and also when added together will always produce a amount of zero. These pairs of numbers are also sometimes dubbed “opposites.”

Altitude the a Triangle A segment attracted from a crest of the triangle perpendicular come the opposite next of the triangle, called the basic (or perpendicular to an extension of the base).

AD is an altitude the the triangle

Angle An edge is developed when two rays re-publishing a common vertex.

Example of an angle

Area Model A math model based on the area the a rectangle, offered to represent multiplication or fractional components of a whole.

Associative building of Addition For any type of numbers x, y , and also z: (x + y) + z = x + (y + z). The associative residential property of addition states that the order in which you team variables or number does not issue in identify the final sum.

Associative residential or commercial property of Multiplication For any kind of numbers x, y , and z: (xy) z = x (yz). The associative residential or commercial property of multiplication states that the bespeak in which you group variables or numbers does not issue in identify the final product.

Attribute A distinguishing characteristic of an object. For instance, two features of a triangle room angles and sides.

Axis A number line in a plane. Plural type is axes. Likewise see: coordinate Plane.

Bar Graph A graph in which rectangular bars, either vertical or horizontal, are used to screen data.

Example of a bar graph


If any type of number x is raised to the nth power, created as x^n, x is referred to as the base of the expression; any kind of side the a triangle; one of two people of the parallel sides of a trapezoid; either of the parallel political parties of a parallelogram.

Box and Whisker Plot for data ordered smallest to largest the median, reduced quartile and upper quartile are found and also displayed in a box follow me a number line. Whiskers are included to the right and also left and extended come the least and greatest values of the data.

Example of a box and also whisker plot

Cartesian coordinate System See: name: coordinates Plane

Center the a Circle A suggest in the interior of the circle the is equidistant from all points of the circle.

A circle and its center

Chord A segment who endpoints space points that a circle.

An instance of a chord of a circle

Circle The collection of point out in a airplane equidistant from a point in the plane.

Circumference The distance approximately a circle. Its size is the product that the diameter that the circle and pi.

Coefficient In the product that a consistent and a variable the consistent is the number coefficient of the variable and is generally referred to merely as the coefficient.

Common Denominator A common multiple of the denominators of two or more fractions. Additionally see: Least typical Denominator

Common Factor A factor that 2 or an ext integers have in common. Also see: Greatest usual Factor.

Common Multiple See: Least usual Multiple.

Complement The enhance of a set E is a set of all the facets that are not in E.

Complementary Angles 2 angles are complementary if the amount of their actions totals 90 degrees.

Example of 2 complementary angles, a and b

Composite Number A prime number is an creature p higher than 1 with precisely two confident factors: 1 and also p. A composite number is an integer greater than 1 that has more than two optimistic factors. The number 1 is the multiplicative identity; that is, for any kind of number n, n · 1 = n. The number 1 is neither a prime nor a composite number.

Compound Event A subset that a sample an are containing 2 or more outcomes.

Concentric circles Circles with the same center and also in the same plane that have different radii.

Example the concentric circles

Cone A three-dimensional number with a circular basic joined to a point called the apex.

Picture that a cone

Congruent offered to describe angles or sides having actually the exact same measure and also to polygon that have the very same shape and also size.

Conjecture An assumption that is assumed to be true based on observations.

Constant A solved value.

Coordinate(s) A number assigned come each point on the number line which reflects its place or location on the line. In a coordinate airplane the notified pair, (x,y), assigned come each allude of the plane, mirrors the point’s position in relation to the x-axis and y-axis.

Coordinate Plane A airplane that consists of a horizontal and vertical number line, intersecting at best angles at your origins. The number lines, dubbed axes, division the plane into 4 quadrants. The quadrants space numbered I, II, III, and IV start in the upper ideal quadrant and moving counterclockwise.

Coordinate aircraft

Counterclockwise A circular movement opposite come the direction the the motion of the hands of a clock.


Counting Numbers The counting numbers are the number in the complying with never-ending sequence: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7... Us can additionally write this together +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7,... This numbers are also called the optimistic integers or natural numbers.


A three-dimensional shape having actually six congruent square faces. The 3rd power the a number.
Cube shape

Cylinder A three-dimensional number with parallel one bases the equal dimension joined through a lateral surface ar whose net is a rectangle.


Data A collection of information, generally in the form of numbers.

Data Analysis The procedure of making sense of built up data.

Data Point every individual piece of information accumulated in a collection of data.


The circumference of a one is split into 360 equal components or arcs. Radii drawnto both ends of the arc kind an angle of 1 degree. The level of a ax is the amount of the index number of the variables. A degree is additionally unit that measurement offered for measure temperature.

Denominator The denominator the a portion indicates into how many equal components the totality is divided. The denominator appears beneath the portion bar.

Diameter A segment with endpoints top top the circle the passes through its center.

Dividend The quantity that is to it is in divided.

Divisibility suppose that n and also d space integers, and also that d is not 0. The number n is divisible through d if there is an essence q such the n = dq. Equivalently, d is a factor of n or n is a lot of of d.

Division Algorithm given two positive integers a and b, us can always find unique integers q and r such the a= bq + r and also 0≤ r The quantity through which the dividend is divided.

Domain The set of input values in a function.

Edge A segment that joins continuous vertices the a polygon or a polyhedron.

Elements Members the a set.

Empirical Probability Probability established by genuine data gathered from real experiments.

Equation A math sentence using the equal authorize to state that two expressions stand for the exact same number.

Equilateral Triangle An it is intended triangle is a triangle with three congruent sides. An equilateral triangle also has 3 congruent angles, which we can also call equiangular triangle.


A term supplied to describe fractions or ratios that space equal. A term provided to define fractions, decimals, and also percents that space equal.

Event an occasion is any kind of subset that the sample space. A straightforward event is a subset the the sample space containing only 1 feasible outcome of one experiment. A compound event is a subset that the sample an are containing 2 or an ext outcomes.

Experiment A repeatable action with a set of outcomes.

Exponent expect that n is a entirety number. Then, for any number x, the nth power of x, or x come the nth power, is the product the n factors of the number x. This number is commonly written x^n. The number x is usually referred to as the base of the expression x^n, and n is referred to as the exponent.

Exponential Notation A notation that expresses a number in terms of a base and an exponent.

Expression A mathematical expression like “m + 1” supplied to describe quantities mathematically v numbers and variables.

Face each of the surface polygons that type a polyhedron.

Factor an integer the divides evenly into a dividend. Usage interchangeably with divisor except in the department Algorithm.

Factorial The factorial of a non-negative number n is written n! and is the product of all hopeful integers much less than or same to n. By meaning 0!= 1!= 1.

Fraction number of the type m/n, wherein n is not zero.

Frequency The number of times a data suggest appears in a data set.

Function A duty is a dominance that assigns to each member of a set of inputs, dubbed the domain, a member that a collection of outputs, called the range.

Graph of a Function The pictorial representation of a function.

Greater than, less Than intend that x and y are integers. We say the x is less than y, x y, if x is to the right of y top top the number line.

Greatest common Factor, GCF intend m and n are hopeful integers. An creature d is a usual factor that m and also n if d is a factor of both m and also n. The greatest usual factor, or GCF, that m and n is the best positive integer the is a aspect of both m and also n. We create the GCF the m and also n together GCF (m,n).

Height The length of the perpendicular between the bases that a parallelogram or trapezoid; also the altitude the a triangle.

Horizontal Axis See: name: coordinates Plane.

Hypotenuse The next opposite the best angle in a best triangle.


Improper Fraction A fraction in which the numerator is better than or same to the denominator.

Independent Events If the outcome of an occasion does not affect the result of other events.

Input Values The values of the domain the a function.

Integers The repertoire of integers is composed of the counting numbers, the negatives, and zero; ... −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4...

Isosceles Triangle A triangle through at the very least two sides of equal length.

Example the isosceles triangle

Lateral Area The surface area of any three-dimensional number excluding the area of any kind of surface designated together a basic of the figure.

Lattice Point A point of the coordinate plane, (x,y), in i beg your pardon both x and also y room integers.

Least usual Denominator The least typical denominator the the fractions p/n and k/m is the least typical multiple that n and m, LCM(n, m).

Least typical Multiple, LCM The integers a and b are positive. An creature m is a common multiple the a and also b if m is a multiple of both a and b. The least usual multiple, or LCM, that a and also b is the the smallest integer that is a typical multiple that a and b. We write the LCM that a and b together LCM (a,b).


The two sides the a ideal triangle that type the appropriate angle. The same sides of one isosceles triangle or the non-parallel political parties of a trapezoid.

Less than See: better Than.

Line graph A graph offered to screen data the occurs in a sequence. Consecutive points are connected by segments.

Example that a heat graph
Example that a heat plot

Linear version for Multiplication Skip counting on a number line.

Mean The median of a set of data; sum of the data split by the variety of items. Likewise called the arithmetic mean or average.

Measures of main Tendency usually measured by the mean, median, or setting of the data set.

Median The center value of a collection of data i ordered it in enhancing or diminish order. If the set has an even number of items the mean is the typical of the center two items.

Missing aspect Model A design for division in i beg your pardon the quotient of one indicated division is perceived as a missing factor of a connected multiplication.

Mixed portion (Numbers) The sum of one integer and also a proper fraction.

Mode The value of the element that appears most commonly in a data set.

Multiplicative Identity See: Composite Numbers.

Multiplicative Inverse The number x is referred to as the multiplicative station or mutual of n, n ≠ 0, if x · n = 1.

Natural Numbers See: counting Numbers.

Negative Integers Integers less than zero.

Notation A technical device of symbols provided to convey math information.

Number Line A pictorial representation of number on a right line.

Numerator The expression written over the fraction bar in a common portion to show the number of parts counted.

Obtuse Angle An angle whose measure is higher than 90 degrees and also less 보다 180 degrees.

Obtuse Triangle A triangle that has actually one obtuse angle.

Order the Operations The stimulate of mathematical operations, through computations within parentheses to be excellent first, and enhancement and individually from left to appropriate done last.

Ordered Pair A pair of numbers that represent the works with of a suggest in the coordinate aircraft with the an initial number measured along the horizontal scale and also the 2nd along the upright scale.

Origin The suggest with name: coordinates 0 top top a number line; the point with collaborates (0,0) in the coordinate plane.


Outcomes The collection of feasible results of an experiment.

Outlier A term referring to a value that is drastically different from many of the various other data values.

Output Values The collection of results acquired by using a duty rule come a set of intake values.

Parallel Lines two lines in a aircraft that never intersect.

Percent A means of to express a number as components out of 100; the molecule of a proportion with a denominator the 100.

Perfect Cube An integer n that deserve to be composed in the kind n= k³, where k is one integer.

Perfect Square An integer n that have the right to be composed in the kind n= k², wherein k is an integer.

Perimeter The perimeter that a polygon is the amount of the lengths the its sides.

Perpendicular two lines or segments are perpendicular if they crossing to kind a ideal angle.

Pi The proportion of the circumference to the diameter of any type of circle, stood for either by the price π, or the approximation 22/7 , or 3.1415926...

Pie (Circle) Graph A graph utilizing sectors of a circle that space proportional to the percent the the data represented.

Positive Integers See: counting Numbers.

Power See: Exponent.

Prime Number See: Composite Number.

Prime Factorization The procedure of recognize the prime factors of one integer. The hatchet is additionally used to refer to the result of the process.

Prism A form of polyhedron that has two bases that are both congruent and also parallel, and also lateral faces which space parallelograms.

Probability In an experiment in which each outcome is same likely, the probability P(A) of an occasion A is m/n where m is the number of outcomes in the subset A and n is the total number of outcomes in the sample an are S.

Proper Fraction A portion whose value is greater than 0 and less than 1.

Proportion one equation the ratios in the type a/b = c/d, where b and d room not equal to zero.

Protractor one instrument used to measure angle in degrees.

Quadrant See: name: coordinates Plane.

Quadrilateral A plane figure with 4 straight edges and also four angles.

Quotient The result obtained by doing division. Watch the department Algorithm for a various use the quotient.

Radius The distance from the center of a circle to a suggest on the circle. Plural form is radii.

Range The difference in between the largest and smallest values of a data set. See function for another an interpretation of range.

Rate A price is a department comparison in between two quantities with various units. Also see Unit Rate.

Ratio A division comparison of two amounts with or there is no the same units. If the devices are different they should be to express to do the proportion meaningful.

Rational Number A number that can be composed as a/b whereby a is an integer and also b is a natural number.

Ray part of a line that has actually a starting point and continues forever in just one direction.

Reciprocal See: Multiplicative Inverse.

Regular Polygon A polygon v equal side lengths and equal edge measures.

Relatively Prime 2 integers m and n are relatively prime if the GCF that m and also n is 1.

Remainder See: department Algorithm.

Repeating Decimal A decimal in i m sorry a cycle of one or more digits is recurring infinitely.

Right Angle one angle formed by the intersection that perpendicular lines; an angle whose measure up is 90º.

Right Triangle A triangle that includes a right angle.

Sample Space The collection of all possible outcomes of one experiment.

Scaffolding A method of division in i m sorry partial quotients are computed, stacked, and then combined.

Scalene Triangle A triangle through all 3 sides of different lengths is dubbed a scalene triangle.


A procedure by which a shape is diminished or increased proportionally. Picking the unit of measure up to be supplied on a number line.

Sector A part of a circle the represents the interior part of the circle in between two radii.

Sequence A perform of terms ordered by the organic numbers.

Set A arsenal of objects or elements.

Simple Event See: Event

Simplest type of a Fraction A type of a fraction in i m sorry the greatest common factor of the numerator and also denominator is 1.

Simplifying The procedure of finding tantamount fractions to attain the most basic form.

Skewed an uneven representation of a collection of data.

Slant Height an altitude that a challenge of a pyramid or a cone.

Square Root for non-negative numbers x and y, y= x , read “y is same to the square source of x,” method y²= x.

Stem and also Leaf Plot A method of reflecting the frequency the a details data through sorting and ordering the values.

Straight Angle one angle through a measure of 180 degrees formed by the contrary rays.

Subset set B is a subset of collection A if every aspect of set B is likewise an facet of collection A.

Supplementary two angles room supplementary if the amount of their actions totals 180º.

Surface Area The surface ar area of a three-dimensional number is the area essential to type its exterior.

Terminating Decimal If the quotient of a division problem has a remainder of zero, the quotient is claimed to it is in a terminating decimal.

Tessellation Tiling the a airplane with one or an ext shapes as a means of covering the airplane with the shape(s) with no gaps or overlaps.

Theoretical Probability Probability based on thought experiments fairly than a repertoire of data.

Translation A change that slides a number a details distance along a line in a mentioned direction.

Trapezoid A 4 sided aircraft figure with exactly one collection of parallel sides.

Tree Diagram

A procedure used to find the prime determinants of an integer. A technique to organize the sample an are of compound events.

Triangle A airplane figure through three right edges and three angles.

Trichotomy A building stating that exactly one of these statements is true because that each actual number: the is positive, negative, or zero.

Unit Fraction for an essence n, the multiplicative train station or mutual of n is the unit fraction 1/n. 1/n is stated to be a unit portion because its numerator is 1.

Unit Rate A ratio of 2 unlike quantities that has a denominator of 1 unit.

Variable A letter or symbol that represents one unknown quantity.

Venn Diagram A diagram entailing two or an ext overlapping circles that aids in arranging data.


The typical endpoint of two rays forming an angle. A allude of a polygon or polyhedron whereby edges meet.

Vertical Angles A pair of angle of same measure much less than 180° that are formed by opposite rays of a pair that intersecting lines.

Vertical Axis See: coordinate Plane.

Volume A measure of space; the number of unit cubes needed to to fill a three-dimensional shape.

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Whole Numbers The entirety numbers are the number in the adhering to never-ending sequence: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .... These numbers are likewise called the non-negative integers.