The face skeleton offer to protect the brain; house and protect the sense organs of smell, sight, and also taste; and carry out a structure on i m sorry the soft organization of the confront can act come facilitate eating, facial expression, breathing, and speech. The main bones the the challenge are the mandible, maxilla, frontal bone, sleep bones, and zygoma. Face bone anatomy is complex, yet elegant, in the suitability to serve a multitude the functions. The image below provides an introduction of the anterior attributes of the skull. <1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6>


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Skull, anterior view.

The mandible is a U-shaped bone. It is the just mobile bone the the face skeleton, and, since it residences the lower teeth, its motion is essential for mastication. It is formed by intramembranous ossification. The mandible is created of 2 hemimandibles joined at the midline through a upright symphysis. The hemimandibles fuse to form a single bone by period 2 years. Every hemimandible is composed of a horizontal body through a posterior vertical extension termed the ramus. (See the photos below.) <7>


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Mandible, anterolateral premium view.
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Mandible, left posterior view.

Body - lateral surface

On the anterior worse midline an ar of the hemimandible body is a triangular thickening the bone termed the mental protuberance. The thickened worse rim the the psychological protuberance extends laterally indigenous the midline and also forms 2 rounded protrusions termed the psychological tubercles. Situated lateral to the midline ~ above the exterior surface are the psychological foramina that transmit the mental nerves and vessels. They usually are located below the apex that the second bicuspid and also have 6-10 mm of sports in the anteroposterior dimension.

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The rim of bone lateral come the psychological tubercles expand posteriorly and ascends obliquely as the oblique line to join the anterior leaf of the coronoid process. The worse rim the the posterior body thickens and flares laterally where it attaches to the masseter muscle.


Body - medial surface

Just lateral come the symphysis top top the inner surface ar of the mandible are 2 paired protuberances termed the superior and inferior mental spines. The genioglossus muscle attaches to the superior psychological spines, and also the geniohyoid muscle attaches come the inferior mental spines. Just lateral to the inferior mental spines ~ above the worse border that the mandible room 2 concavities referred to as the digastric fossae, wherein the anterior digastric muscles attach.


Extending obliquely in a posterosuperior direction indigenous the midline is a ridge the bone referred to as the mylohyoid line, i beg your pardon serves together the attachment website for the mylohyoid muscle. Above and below the mylohyoid heat on the inner mandibular body space 2 shallow convexities against which the sublingual and submandibular glands abut, respectively. Medial to the ascending leaf of the anterior ramus is the retromolar trigone, located automatically behind the 3rd molar.


Rami - lateral surface

The ramus expand vertically in a posterosuperior direction posterior come the human body on every hemimandible. The mandibular angle is developed by the intersection the the worse rim the the body and the posterior pickled in salt of the ascending ramus. The premium ramus bifurcates into an anterior coronoid process and a posterior condylar process. The concavity between the 2 processes is dubbed the mandibular notch. The coronoid is thin and also triangular. Through the this in occlusion, that superior degree is medial come the zygomatic arch. The coronoid is the website of attachments of the temporalis muscle. Inferiorly, the condylar procedure has a small neck that widens to a globular head the articulates v the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone.


Rami - medial surface

On the medial surface ar of the ramus, just listed below the mandibular notch, is one aperture termed the mandibular foramen; the worse alveolar nerve and blood ship run through this aperture. Just medial to the mandibular foramen is the lingula, a triangular bony protuberance with its apex pointing posterosuperiorly towards the condylar head. Expanding anteriorly and also inferiorly from the mandibular notch towards the inferior rim that the body is the mylohyoid groove, through which the mylohyoid nerve runs.

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Internal anatomy

The mandible has actually a large medullary core with a cortical in salt 2-4 mm thick. <8> The inferior alveolar canal begins at the mandibular foramen and also courses inferiorly, anteriorly, and also toward the lingual surface in the ramus. In adults, the canal comes in nearby proximity come the root of the 3rd molar. In the mandibular body, the canal courses along the inferior border close to the lingual surface. Anteriorly, the canal runs frequently inferior to the level of the mental foramen, come which it ascends in ~ its terminal end.


The mandible houses the reduced dentition, i m sorry in adults consists of 2 central and 2 lateral incisors, 2 canines, 2 an initial and 2 2nd premolars, and 3 to adjust of molars. Interdental septi run between the buccal and also lingual cortices the the mandible, and also interradicular septi run in between the mesial and distal root of the molars.