6.4 Ionic bonding (ESABW)

The nature of the ionic bond (ESABX)

When electrons room transferred indigenous one atom to one more it is dubbed ionic bonding.

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Electronegativity is a property of one atom, describing just how strongly it attractive or holds ~ above electrons. Ionic bonding takes location when the distinction in electronegativity in between the two atoms is an ext than \\(\\text1,7\\). This generally happens once a metal atom bonds v a non-metal atom. As soon as the difference in electronegativity is large, one atom will entice the shared electron pair much more strongly 보다 the other, leading to electrons come be moved to the atom with greater electronegativity. As soon as ionic binding form, a metal donates one or an ext electrons, due to having a low electronegativity, to type a positive ion or cation. The non-metal atom has actually a high electronegativity, and also therefore readily gains electrons to kind a an unfavorable ion or anion. The 2 ions room then attracted to each various other by electrostatic forces.

Ionic shortcut

An ionic shortcut is a kind of chemical bond wherein one or an ext electrons space transferred from one atom to another.

Example 1:

In the instance of \\(\\textNaCl\\), the distinction in electronegativity between \\(\\textNa\\) (\\(\\text0,93\\)) and \\(\\textCl\\) (\\(\\text3,16\\)) is \\(\\text2,1\\). Sodium has only one valence electron, while chlorine has actually seven. Due to the fact that the electronegativity that chlorine is greater than the electronegativity that sodium, chlorine will tempt the valence electron of the salt atom very strongly. This electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine. Salt loses one electron and also forms one \\(\\textNa^+\\) ion.

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Chlorine benefit an electron and forms a \\(\\textCl^-\\) ion.

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Chlorine is a diatomic molecule and so for it to take component in ionic bonding, it must first break up into two atoms of chlorine. Salt is part of a metallic lattice and also the individual atoms must very first break away from the lattice.


The electron is as such transferred from salt to chlorine:

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Figure 6.1: Ionic bonding in sodium chloride

The well balanced equation for the reaction is:

\\<2\\textNa + \\textCl_2 \\rightarrow 2\\textNaCl\\>

Example 2:

Another example of ionic bonding take away place in between magnesium \\((\\textMg)\\) and oxygen \\((\\textO_2)\\) to form magnesium oxide \\((\\textMgO)\\). Magnesium has actually two valence electrons and an electronegativity that \\(\\text1,31\\), when oxygen has actually six valence electrons and an electronegativity of \\(\\text3,44\\). Because oxygen has a higher electronegativity, it attracts the 2 valence electron from the magnesium atom and these electrons room transferred indigenous the magnesium atom come the oxygen atom. Magnesium loses 2 electrons to kind \\(\\textMg^2+\\), and also oxygen gains 2 electrons to kind \\(\\textO^2-\\). The attractive force in between the oppositely charged ion is what hold the compound together.

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The balanced equation because that the reaction is:

\\<2\\textMg + \\textO_2 \\rightarrow 2\\textMgO\\>

Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule, two magnesium atoms will certainly be essential to incorporate with one oxygen molecule (which has actually two oxygen atoms) to produce two units of magnesium oxide \\((\\textMgO)\\).

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The decision lattice framework of ionic compounds (ESABY)

Ionic substances space actually a mix of several ions external inspection together into a giant molecule. The plan of ion in a regular, geometric structure is called a crystal lattice. So in fact \\(\\textNaCl\\) does not contain one \\(\\textNa\\) and also one \\(\\textCl\\) ion, but rather a most these two ions i ordered it in a decision lattice whereby the ratio of \\(\\textNa\\) come \\(\\textCl\\) ion is 1:1. The framework of the crystal lattice is displayed below.

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Figure 6.2: The decision lattice plan in \\(\\textNaCl\\)

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Figure 6.3: A room filling version of the salt chloride lattice

Properties that ionic compounds (ESABZ)

Ionic compounds have a variety of properties:

Ions space arranged in a lattice structure

Ionic solids space crystalline at room temperature

The ionic shortcut is a solid electrostatic attraction. This method that ionic compounds are frequently hard and have high melting and boiling points

Ionic compounds space brittle and bonds are broken along planes as soon as the compound is placed under press (stressed)