Scientists compare Rat civicpride-kusatsu.net through Human, Mouse

Analysis Yields new Insights into Medical Model, evolution Process

BETHESDA, Md., Wed., march 31, 2004 - An worldwide research team, supported by the nationwide Institutes of wellness (NIH), now announced it has actually completed a high-quality, breeze sequence the the civicpride-kusatsu.net that the laboratory rat, and has provided that data to discover how the rat"s hereditary blueprint stacks up versus those of mice and humans.

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In a file published in the April 1 worry of the journal Nature, the Rat civicpride-kusatsu.net Sequencing job Consortium describes its initiatives to produce and analyze a draft sequence that the Brown Norway stress, overload of the activities rat (Rattus norvegicus). The project, led through the human civicpride-kusatsu.net Sequencing center at Baylor college of medicine in Houston, was mainly funded by the national Heart, Lung and also Blood institute (NHLBI), $58.5 million, and also the National human being civicpride-kusatsu.net study Institute (NHGRI), $60 million.

"This is an investment that is destined come yield major payoffs in the fight versus human disease," stated NIH manager Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D. "For virtually 200 years, the activities rat has played a valuable duty in initiatives to understand human being biology and to develop brand-new and far better drugs. Now, armed with this sequencing data, a brand-new generation of researcher will be able to greatly enhance the utility of rat models and thereby improve person health."

Areas in which rat models have already helped to advance medical research study include: cardiovascular conditions (hypertension); psychiatric disorders (studies of behavioral intervention and also addiction); neural regeneration; diabetes; surgery; transplantation; autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis); cancer; wound and bone healing; and room motion sickness. In drug development, the rat is regularly employed to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy and assess toxicity of medicine compounds former to human being clinical trials. The civicpride-kusatsu.net sequence will certainly facilitate all of these studies, as well as help researchers far better pinpoint the an important areas of organic difference in between rats and humans.

"This is an era of extraordinary biomedical avenues in genomic research. As a an outcome of this far-reaching achievement, the rat version is poised come be in ~ the head of discovery, giving insight into human wellness and new treatments for human being diseases," stated NHLBI acting Director Barbara Alving, M.D.

The rat succession draft, i beg your pardon covers an ext than 90 percent the the civicpride-kusatsu.net, to represent the third mammalian civicpride-kusatsu.net to it is in sequenced come high quality and described in a major scientific publication. A draft of the human being civicpride-kusatsu.net succession was released in February 2001, and the completed human sequence was announced in April 2003. A breeze of the computer mouse civicpride-kusatsu.net sequence was released in December 2002. The ease of access of a 3rd mammalian civicpride-kusatsu.net sequence provides scientists the ability to triangulate data to better resolve details of human biology, and also mammalian evolution.

"The sequencing of the rat civicpride-kusatsu.net constitutes another major milestone in our effort to expand our understanding of the person civicpride-kusatsu.net," said NHGRI manager Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. "As we develop upon the foundation laid by the person civicpride-kusatsu.net Project, it"s end up being clear the comparing the human being civicpride-kusatsu.net through those of other organisms is the most powerful tool accessible to understand the complicated genomic components connected in human health and disease."

In enhancement to Baylor college of Medicine, the Rat civicpride-kusatsu.net Sequencing task includes: Celera Genomics team of the Applera Corp., Rockville, Md.; civicpride-kusatsu.net Therapeutics Corp., Waltham, Mass.; the civicpride-kusatsu.net sciences Centre, brothers Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, british Columbia; The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Md.; The college of Utah, Salt Lake City; clinical College the Wisconsin, Milwaukee; The Children"s Hospital the Oakland research study Institute, Oakland, Calif.; and also the Max Delbrück facility for molecular Medicine, Berlin. In addition to the NIH funding, added private capital was noted to Baylor by the Kleberg Foundation.

After the rat civicpride-kusatsu.net sequence was assembled in ~ Baylor, an international team, consisted of of more than 20 groups in 6 countries, carried out a three-way evaluation comparing the rat succession data with similar data indigenous the mouse and the human. In addition to the document in Nature, the team is publishing second 30 documents in the April problem of the newspaper civicpride-kusatsu.net Research, which describe the analyses in better detail.

"Future work-related aimed at identifying the genomic distinctions that contribute to the advancement of physics traits may benefit from analyses such together these, which will certainly become much more powerful as the repertoire of mammalian civicpride-kusatsu.net assignment expands," claimed Richard Gibbs, Ph.D., director of the Baylor college of Medicine"s civicpride-kusatsu.net Sequencing Center and also principal investigator the the Rat civicpride-kusatsu.net Sequencing Project.

In your Nature paper, the researcher reported that, at around 2.75 billion basic pairs, the rat civicpride-kusatsu.net is smaller than the human civicpride-kusatsu.net, which is 2.9 billion basic pairs, and slightly bigger than computer mouse civicpride-kusatsu.net, i m sorry is 2.6 billion basic pairs. However, they additionally found the the rat civicpride-kusatsu.net contains about the same number of genes as the human and also mouse civicpride-kusatsu.nets. Furthermore, virtually all human genes well-known to be linked with diseases have counterparts in the rat civicpride-kusatsu.net and appear highly conserved v mammalian evolution, confirming the the rat is wonderful model for many areas of medical research.

Comparison the the rat civicpride-kusatsu.net come those of the human and mouse also opens a new and unique window into mammalian evolution. The rodent lineage, which gave rise come the rat and mouse, and also the primate lineage, which gave rise to humans, diverged about 80 million year ago. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, when rats have 21 and also mice have actually 20. However, the new analysis discovered chromosomes indigenous all three organisms to be related to each other by around 280 huge regions of succession similarity - dubbed "syntenic blocks" - dispersed in differing patterns throughout the organisms" chromosomes.

The sequence data also confirms the the rodent lineage split 12 to 24 million years ago into the separate lines that provided rise to the rat and to the mouse. Researcher estimate around 50 chromosomal rearrangements occurred in every of the rodent lines after divergence from their usual ancestor. The number of chromosomal rearrangements, and other species of civicpride-kusatsu.net changes, was discovered to be much lower in the primate lineage, indicating the evolutionary readjust has occurred at a much faster rate in rodents 보다 in primates.

The new analysis also underscores the reality that when rats and also mice look very similar to the human being eye, over there are significant genomic differences in between the two species of rodents. Because that example, some elements of genomic advancement in the rat show up to be accelerated when contrasted to the mouse. Follow to the brand-new analysis, as result of the person that is abnormal rapid development of selected gene families, rats possess some genes not found in the mouse, consisting of genes affiliated in immunity, the production of pheromones (chemicals associated in sexual attraction), the breakdown of proteins and also the detection and also detoxification of chemicals.

To attain its goal of creating a high-quality breeze sequence, the Rat civicpride-kusatsu.net Sequencing Project occurred a new, "combined" technique that used both entirety civicpride-kusatsu.net shotgun (WGS) and also bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone sequencing techniques. To merge these right into the last draft sequence, the Baylor group emerged the Atlas software package for civicpride-kusatsu.net assembly. The result civicpride-kusatsu.net succession was had in 291 huge segments, with a typical length of 19 million bases. Moreover, the structure of the 3 percent of the civicpride-kusatsu.net that includes recent duplications - thought to be the areas in which countless genes room "born" - was established by the Atlas assembler. This statistics match or exceed other draft civicpride-kusatsu.net sequences. Overall, the linked approach takes advantage of strengths of both the WGS and also BAC methods.

A high-resolution photograph of the Brown Norway strain of the laboratory rat is accessible at: www.civicpride-kusatsu.net/dmd.

NHGRI and NHLBI are two that the 27 institutes and centers at the NIH, i m sorry is an firm of the department of Health and also Human Services. For more on to compare genomic analysis, walk to: www.civicpride-kusatsu.net/10005835/background-on-comparative-genomic-analysis/.

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Additional information around NHGRI deserve to be uncovered at its web site: www.civicpride-kusatsu.net. Additional information about NHLBI can be discovered at its net site: www.nhlbi.nih.gov.