Note: practice quizzes are easily accessible only because that those part of the hand-operated covering rules of the roadway (Chapters 4 v 11 and also Road Signs).

You are watching: Hazards are those hazards that are within 10-12 seconds in front of your vehicle.


Most vehicle drivers are great drivers. However even the ideal drivers make errors now and then. Equipment fails, weather conditions can it is in bad, and also some chauffeurs ignore traffic legislations or drive in an erratic manner. To protect against making errors or being involved in a crash since of who else"s error, find out to drive in a defensive manner. 

Be prepared and also look ahead.Maintain the exactly speed.Signal before you turn or adjust lanes.Allow space.Wear your seat belt.Do not drive if you are really weary, room on medication or have been drinking beverages that contain alcohol.Keep your auto in good condition.Do not use hand organized mobile gadgets while driving.


You must sit in a comfortable, but vertical position, and keep both hands on the steering wheel. Slouching in the driver"s chair or using only one hand ~ above the wheel makes it more challenging or also dangerous to regulate your vehicle. 

Traffic conditions change continuously. Always scan the road ahead. Execute not usage the road or also the automobile ahead as your only points of focus. Look front so you have the right to prevent, or decrease, possible problems.

Keep her eyes moving, notification what is happening in ~ the political parties of the road, and also check behind you through your winter every few seconds.

Anticipate errors by other drivers, bicyclists and also pedestrians and think about what friend will carry out if one error occurs. Carry out not assume that a driver who viewpoints a avoid or YIELD authorize on a side road is actually going to protect against or yield. That is better to assume the various other driver will certainly not stop. 


A distraction is acivicpride-kusatsu.netthing the takes your attention away indigenous driving. Distracted driving can reason crashes, causing injury, death, or residential or commercial property damage. Taking your eyes off the roadway or hands off the steering wheel presents evident driving risks. Mental tasks that take her mind away from steering are just as dangerous.

When driving:

Do not usage cell phones or text.Avoid arguments and also stressful or emotional conversations with passengers.Avoid eat while driving.Be sure kids are properly and safely restrained.Properly secure pet in a pet transport or portable kennel.

You have to pay fist to the steering task. You are responsible for operation your automobile in a for sure manner.



Aggressive driving has speeding, which frequently leads to following too closely, frequent or quick lane alters without a signal, pass on the shoulder or components of the roadway that room not paved or being a nuisance come motorists, bicyclists or pedestrians, who don"t obtain out the the way. Aggressive vehicle drivers sometimes run stop signs and red lights, pass stopped college buses, fail to store right, journey while impaired by alcohol or drugs and also drive in a reckless manner. Some aggressive drivers try to cause damage to another driver, and that is just how aggressive steering becomes roadway rage.

To avoid road rage, that is sometimes far better not to make eye call with one more driver. The other driver have the right to take this together being challenged.


When an wild driver confronts you:

Do no make eye contact.Remain calm and also relaxed.Try to relocate away safely. Do not difficulty an wild driver with raised speed or shot to organize your position in your travel lane.Wear a chair belt and also encourage her passengers to carry out the same.Ignore gestures and also shouts and also do no return them.Report aggressive chauffeurs to legislation enforcement authorities and also give a automobile description, location, auto plate number and direction that travel.If an aggressive driver is following you, perform not prevent or leave your vehicle. Drive to the nearest police station.If an wild driver is connected in a crash, avoid a safe street from the crash scene. Once the police arrive, report the driving habits you saw.

To avoid becoming an wild driver:

Allow sufficient travel time to reach your destination on schedule.Adjust her schedule to avoid driving during times v the most highway traffic.If you are late, contact ahead therefore you deserve to relax.Do no drive once you room angry, upset or very tired.Make your car comfortable. Hear to be sure music and also prevent conditions that make you anxious.When girlfriend drive, relax and be aware of just how you sit. Sit ago in her seat, ease your host on the steering wheel and also do no grind your teeth.Be polite, courteous and also forgiving to various other drivers.You can regulate how you react. If an additional person drives aggressively, carry out not do the same.

If you have the right-of-way, execute not think the it together a finish right. Be all set to productivity the right-of-way to various other highway users. To wait a few seconds for an additional driver is far much better than to risk a crash. 



What is "road rage"? road rage is one angry, enemy state which deserve to increase into violent criminal actions, or do the efforts of violent actions, that result from the operation of a engine vehicle. Roadway rage have the right to include habits to provoke others or to do them fearful.

Aggressive driving is not roadway rage. However, aggressive driving can end up being road rage. Wild driving generally involves the violation that a traffic safety law, while road rage requires the break of a criminal law.

Who can become road raged? It could happen to acivicpride-kusatsu.netone when our wake up or anger through others leads united state to habits that is a risk to ourselves and to the safety and also lives of others on and also near the roadway or highways. To endanger, threaten or assault an additional person is illegal. These habits can result in severe penalties that incorporate fines, imprisonment and court-ordered probation. Castle can likewise mean revocation and suspension of a driver license.

Road rage can include:Shouts, excessive use of a horn or obscene gestures and also threats.Driving plot like when you reduced off one more vehicle, drive as well closely, block another vehicle therefore it have the right to not usage a website traffic lane, chase one more vehicle or run it off the road, or on purpose slam right into a vehicle.When you stop a vehicle at the next of the road, and get out to threaten, attack, hit or injure another motorist or passenger or a pedestrian, bicyclist or various other person.

Research suggests that being in a state of rage can influence your blood pressure and your capability to reason and make decisions. As a driver, you will make an ext errors. The possibility of being connected in a web traffic crash will certainly increase.

Aggressive driving and also road rage can lead to revoked or suspended driver licenses, problems in between family members and friends, loss of employment and also legal problems. motorists do no recognize once their very own aggressive steering or their own road fury is influence their ability to journey safely. State law requires every accident avoidance course to deal with the hazards and also dangers of roadway rage. For information about accident prevention courses, go to the website at point and Insurance reduction Program. You can likewise contact one of the regimen sponsors. Info is available at kind of state or ar motor vehicle office.



You should obey the speed limit. If no border is posted, journey no much more than 55 mph (88 km/h). Often, it is typical sense to keep your actual speed below the post limit. For example, the legal limit on a slippery or fogged-in expressway can be 55 mph (88 km/h), or also 65 mph (105 km/h), yet the safe speed to drive would certainly be lot lower. Also if you were to journey at 50 mph (80 km/h) on that hazardous highway, a police officer can ticket you for a speed "not reasonable" for the conditions. 

To keep a smooth website traffic flow, some highways likewise have minimum rate limits. If you journey slower 보다 the minimum rate you deserve to halt the website traffic flow and create a dangerous condition. Even if over there is no minimum rate limit, those driving also slow can be together dangerous as those that drive too fast.

Know that some cities have actually speed limits less than 55 mph (88 km/h) that space not be always posted. Because that example, the rate limit is 25 mph (40 km/h) in new York City unless another limit is posted.


ALLOW you yourself SPACE

Four of every 10 crashes involve rear-end collisions, normally since a person is complying with too closely (tailgating). Leave sufficient room in between your vehicle and also the one ahead so you deserve to stop for sure if the other auto stops suddenly. Brake early and also gently as soon as you prepare to stop or turn. It gives chauffeurs behind you plenty the warning the you plan to decrease your speed.

For a great "space cushion," use the two-second rule: Select things near or over the road ahead favor a sign, tree or overpass. As the vehicle ahead passes it, count slowly, "one thousand one, one thousands two." If you reach the same object before you end up the count, friend are following too closely. In bad weather and when following large trucks, rise the count to at least three or 4 seconds for extr space.

If a driver follows you too very closely (tailgates) move to another lane if possible, or reduce speed and also pull off the roadway to let the driver go by. Make certain to signal when you journey off the road and also when you go back to it. Execute not push your brakes suddenly or unnecessarily as this might startle the motorist behind you and also could escalate into road rage.

In situation you must readjust lanes conveniently or pull end to avoid a hazard, leave some "escape" room to your left and also right.



Seat belts conserve lives and also can protect against serious injuries in website traffic crashes. This is why new York State requires seat belt usage by adults in engine vehicles and also seat belts, booster seat or child safety and security seats for children


New York is a "primary enforcement" state. A law enforcement officer can worry a traffic ticket for fail to wear a chair belt. This law additionally applies to visitor indigenous outside brand-new York State.

Highlights of the brand-new York State occupant restraint law:

In the front seat, the driver and each passenger need to be effectively restrained, one person per belt. The driver and front-seat passenger age 16 or older deserve to each face a fine of up to $50 if they fail come buckle up.For vehicles thrust by persons v a Class-DJ student permit or a Class-DJ driver license, every occupant, no issue the period or seating position, need to correctly use a security restraint.The driver must make sure that every passenger under 16 obeys the law. The driver can confront a fine of $25 come $100 and receive 3 penalty point out on his driver patent for every violation.Seat belt usage is not required in taxis or livery vehicles, emergency vehicles, 1964 or enlarge vehicles or by passenger in buses (except college buses; seat belt usage can forced by a college district). Landscape Letter carrier are additionally exempt as soon as they room delivering mail.

Every passenger under age 16 must use a safety and security restraint. If under age 4, persons must be correctly secured in a government approved child security seat that is attached come a vehicle by a safety belt or universal anchorage (LATCH) system. A boy under period 4 who weighs an ext than 40 pounds have the right to be restrained in a booster seat v a lap and shoulder belt. A kid of period 4, 5, 6 or 7 need to use a booster seat v lap and shoulder belt or a child safety and security seat (The child safety and security restraint mechanism must satisfy the height and also weight recommendations of the restraint manufacturer.)

Exception: A child much more than 4 feet 9 customs in elevation or weighing much more than 100 pounds is permitted to usage a chair belt that has both a lap belt and a shoulder harness. If the chair belt does not fit correctly, the child have to use a booster seat through a lap and also shoulder belt.

When friend drive, you need to make sure each human being in your auto is correctly restrained by a chair belt, kid restraint device or automobile seat. During a crash, a human not properly restrained becomes a flying object and also a risk to each human being in the vehicle. 

For added protection, change your auto head rest, lock the doors and do not store loose, hefty objects in the passenger area. Put them in the trunk.Air bags room meant to occupational WITH chair belts, no to replace them. An air bag protects a front-seat occupant in a head-on crash by inflating on impact and providing a cushion so the occupant does no collide through the steering wheel, dashboard or windshield. The combination of a seat belt and an waiting bag provides maximum protection, partly because they assist the driver maintain regulate of the vehicle and aid prevent secondary collisions.Air bags interact (expand quickly) from the steering wheel and/or dashboard. adults who are properly fastened are safer in a auto with wait bags, however the push of an waiting bag together it opens might injure those who sit too close to it. You should sit with at the very least 10 inches between the facility of her chest and also the sheathe of the wait bag. Location your hand on the opposite sides of the steering wheel at the 3 and also 9 o"clock location to keep them far if the waiting bag engages.IMPORTANT: never PUT AN infant IN A REAR-FACING CHILD safety SEAT IN THE FRONT chair OF A vehicle THAT has actually A PASSENGER air BAG.


HOW TO drive SAFELY IN occupational ZONES

Areas where road occupational takes place are dangerous to journey in -- and also to job-related in. That is why when you rate in job-related zones, ticket fines double, also when the workers or occupational vehicles space not there. Mean to find a occupational zone wherever you drive - girlfriend may have to decrease speed conveniently or also stop. Traffic lanes can transition or be totally closed. Workers and work vehicles can be ~ above or close to your control lane. Once you drive in a job-related zone, make it safer due to the fact that you recognize what come do.

Orange signs in the form of diamonds -- "work zone" warning indicators – are often placed prior to road building and construction projects and other work areas that can change traffic flow. One sign can read: "flagger ahead.” A flagger is a worker who activities for you to stop, continue with fist or adjust lanes. A flagger has the same authority together a sign, which shows you deserve to receive a ticket for disobeying your directions.

 Decrease speed! it is in Alert! follow the signs!

Work region Tips:Some signs have the right to indicate a detour that enables you to stop the occupational zone. If you currently know wherein a work zone is ahead, you should try to use a different route.As you enter a work zone, flashing signs or indications with arrows or indicators that warn "lane close up door ahead" mean you should merge your auto into the correct lane when it is safe. Carry out not speed to the end of the closed roadway and try to get into the other lane. If you relocate to the correct roadway at very first notice, you will certainly drive in a calmer, an ext efficient and also safe manner.Decrease your speed once a authorize indicates: "Road work-related 1,500 feet," that means your car, v a speed of 60 miles every hour, will obtain there in 17 seconds. Some job-related zones space not stationary, like as soon as workers repaint lines, patch roadways or mow. In these situations the dimension and/or place of the work zones may change. As work-related progresses, the job-related zone size may increase, decrease, or move to various sections that the roadway. Workers deserve to be close also if you perform not watch them immediately after the warning signs. Obey the signs until you pass the one that claims the work zone has ended.



A "roundabout" is a ring intersection v a small diameter that makes drivers decrease speed, typically to 30 mph or less. Studies display a roundabout deserve to reduce the number and severity of mishaps at an intersection, contrasted to intersections controlled by stop signs or website traffic signals. Roundabouts, or rotaries, room now much more common in brand-new York State and also other states. 



When using roundabouts or web traffic circles:As you get near the roundabout, look because that the street and also direction signs you need. This will help you recognize which exit to take. These indicators will be noted along the roadside prior to you with the entrance to the roundabout. Slow down once you go into the roundabout. A sign, prefer the one above, alerts of a roundabout.When you come at the roundabout, yield the right-of-way to kind of pedestrians and also bicyclists. Girlfriend must additionally yield to type of drivers that were in the roundabout before you. Sometimes a stop sign or website traffic signal will control your point of entry. As soon as the website traffic level permits enough an are and time, you may get in the roundabout in a counterclockwise direction.




Driving and also sleep carry out not mix. Once you are behind the wheel that a car or truck, exhaustion is dangerous. If friend are exhausted when driving you space slower come react, and also are no as mindful as you must be and also your judgment will be impaired. Similar to drugs and also alcohol, drowsiness can add to a traffic crash.

Symptoms of Fatigue — researchers have found the complying with symptoms come be associated with drowsy driving:

Your eye close or go out of emphasis by themselves.You discover it daunting to save your head up.You continue to yawn.Your think wander and are disconnected.You perform not remember driving the last few miles.You drift between lanes, tailgate or miss out on traffic signs.You should jerk the car ago into the lane.You have drifted off the road and hit the rumble strips which develop a according to noise and also vibrations.


Who is At Risk? All chauffeurs who are:

Deprived of sleep or fatigued.Driving long distances without rest breaks.Driving with the night or in ~ times as soon as you are typically asleep.Taking medicine that rises sleepiness or drinking alcohol.Driving alone.Driving ~ above long, rural, or boring roads.Frequent travelers, e.g., business travelers and also long-distance commuters.Young people — Drowsy driving crashes room most usual for young people, who often tend to continue to be up late, sleep too little and drive at night.Shift employees — motorists who have non-traditional work-related schedules have actually a better risk the being affiliated in a fatigue-related website traffic crash.People through Undiagnosed Sleep disorders — The existence of a sleep disorder increases the danger of crashes. If you discover you room regularly worn down in the daytime or experience kind of of this symptoms on a constant basis, you may have actually a sleep disorder and also should seek medical help.


Effective Countermeasures

Prevention — prior to you embark ~ above a trip, friend should:

Get sufficient sleep.Plan come drive lengthy trips v a companion.Schedule constant stops because that every 100 miles or 2 hours.Avoid alcohol and medications (over-the-counter and prescribed) that may impair performance. Inspect with your medical professional or pharmacist about medication you are taking. Alcohol interacts with exhaustion increasing its effects.You are not at your ideal if you space ill or very tired. Execute not drive for at the very least 15 minute after waking native sleep.

Actions because that the Drowsy Driver — as soon as driving, friend must:

Recognize that you room close come sleep and cannot calculate when sleep might occur.Not depend on the radio, open home window or other "tricks" to keep you awake.Find a safe place to stop for a break in solution to symptoms of fatigue.Pull off into a safe area far from traffic and take a short nap (15 to 45 minutes).Drink coffee or another source of caffeine to promote momentary alertness if needed. (It takes around 30 minutes because that caffeine to go into the bloodstream.)


NOTE: see Chapter 9 for more information around the risks of control under the influence of alcohol and other drugs.


USING A to move OR mobile TELEPHONE

A driver can come to be distracted from for sure driving by use of a mobile telephone (like a cellular telephone). In new York State, the is a traffic infraction to speak right into or hear to a hand-held mobile telephone if driving. Because that a first offense you could pay a fine approximately $200 and also receive 5 license points. The phone might be hand-held to activate, begin, or finish a call. Exemptions are noted for calls because that emergency situations, because that police and other legislation enforcement officers and also for fire room personnel and operators the authorized emergency vehicles in the performance of official duties. In brand-new York State, a hands-free mobile telephone allows the user to connect without the usage of either hand. A driver can use a hands-free phone call at kind of time.

Penalties because that texting, electronic maker use

In new York State, it is illegal to use portable electronic devices, such as cell phones and smart phones, to send or receive text messages or e-mails if driving. The penalty for a first offense is a fine of approximately $200. A second offense (both committed within 18 months) is a fine up to $250. A third or subsequent offense (all committed in ~ 18 months) is a fine as much as $450. Also, chauffeurs with probationary and also junior licenses who usage a hand-held phone call or text while control will obtain a 120-day suspension because that a first conviction and a revocation the at least one year for succeeding convictions within 6 months of the time a patent is restored after suspension.



No person shall operate or park a auto on public highways uneven it has actually been inspected at least once a year, however that does not mean it is the just time you should have actually safety equipment checked. Follow her owner"s hand-operated for routine maintenance. Have problems corrected through a qualified mechanic as quickly as possible. Perform not wait till mechanical problems cause breakdowns or crashes.

Pay one-of-a-kind attention to the maintenance and also repair the the brakes, steering mechanism, lights, tires and also horn. Rely on your owner"s manual and also an skilled mechanic as tricks to a for sure vehicle. That is the operator’s duty to ensure that the automobile being driven is safe.

Here room some common problems and also some equipment checks you can do.

BRAKES - Brakes the pull come one side may be wet or might need come be adjusted or repaired. If wet, you deserve to dry them riding the pedal lightly. If this does not help, have your brakes checked by a mechanic. If you notice readjust in the brake performance, have actually them checked immediately.STEERING - There have to not be much cost-free movement in the steering wheel. If your auto has strength steering, check the fluid level periodically. A noise favor a whine as soon as you do a spicy turn have the right to be indicate a problem.LIGHTS - store your lamp clean and free of dirt, snow and ice. Broken lenses can reason dangerous glare for various other drivers, so replace them as shortly as girlfriend can. Make sure headlights are readjusted correctly to offer you the best view that the road.TIRES - The legislation requires that your tires have at least 2/32nds that an customs (.16 cm) that tread. Most tires because that passenger cars and also light trucks have actually indicators called "wear bars" the show across the tire grooves when the minimum tread depth is reached. Girlfriend can inspect your tread depth through a Organize a v Abraham Lincoln’s body between your thumb and also forefinger. Ar Lincoln’s head an initial into the deepest looking groove. Deserve to you see every one of his head? If yes, her tires room too worn – don’t drive on them, and make certain to gain them replaced. The is likewise illegal to drive through tires that have actually cuts under to the cords, bumps or bulges. Refer to your owner"s hands-on or a tires store around correct tire pressure, and check it frequently with a trustworthy gauge.GLASS - store your home windows clean and clear. Replace worn wiper blades. Store your defroster and also rear window defogger in great condition and make sure there is enough windshield fluid in the reservoir.

See more: What Is Hpo4 An Acid Or Base S, Conjugate Acids And Bases

HORN - your horn is essential safety equipment that could become your only means of warning other vehicle drivers or pedestrians of possible problems. If the horn does not work, get it repaired as soon as possible. It should be used properly, not to refer anger at other motorists or pedestrians.


Before you move on to thing 9, make sure you have the right to answer this questions:

Should you always look directly ahead as soon as you drive?If there is no posted rate limit, what is the fastest you deserve to legally journey in brand-new York City?Is it always safe to journey at the assigned rate limit?What is the function of minimum rate limits?Who must wear seat belts? Who need to wear them?How can you prevent exhaustion on a lengthy trip?What is road rage? How have the right to you protect against becoming affiliated in road rage?How need to you journey safely v a occupational zone? A roundabout?