Intermediate not natural Chemistry

University the Rhode Island

Homework 1

1. Write Lewis structures for the molecule or ions displayed below. Present all resonance structures, consisting of those that follow the octet rule (if possible) and also the minimum formal fee rule. Perform not incorporate structures that are ionic. Suggest which structure(s) will certainly be the shortest energy. Describe your reasoning.

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a. ClO3– (eight structures, present four of various energies)


The eight resonance structures for chlorate ion are displayed below:

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Structure 1 has octets on all atoms and also the official charges space –1 on every O atoms but +2 ~ above the Cl atom. Consequently, this is unlikely to be the lowest power structure.

Structures 2, 3, and also 4 store octets ~ above the O atoms however Cl atom does not meet the octet rule. In these frameworks the fee on the Cl atom is +1, 0, and –1, respectively. Structure 3 is probably lowest in energy due to the fact that O and Cl have comparable electronegativities. However, structures 1 and 4 are certainly higher in energy.


The 4 resonance frameworks for boron trifluoride are shown below:

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Structure 1 has minimum formal charges (all atoms have a formal fee of 0) while framework 2 meets the octet dominance for every atoms. Framework 1 is energetically preferred because of the 0 formal fee on all atoms. While structure 2 has octets, the formal fee on the F atom is positive, +1/3, i m sorry is inconsistent v the electronegativities of B and also F.

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Seven of the resonance frameworks for perxenate ion are shown below:

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There room no structures with one octet top top the Xe atom.

Structures 1 and also 2 have actually a hopeful formal fee on the Xe, structure 3 has actually 0 formal fee on the Xe, and also structures 4, 5, 6, and 7 have negative formal fee on the Xe. Framework 3 is most likely the lowest energy yet structure 2 is most likely close. However, structures 4, 5, 6, and 7 room certainly higher in energy.