Planet earth is consisted of of four overlapping subsystems the contain all of world’s soil masses, water sources, living organisms, and also gases. These four subsystems are recognized as spheres.

Geographers break down the Earth’s systems into 4 spheres that comprise the world’s air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere), land (geosphere), and also living organisms (biosphere).

Three of these spheres room abiotic and one sphere is biotic. Abiotic explains substances that space made native non-living materials. Biotic relates to living things like bacteria, birds, mammals, insects, and plants.

You are watching: For study the earth can be divided into three parts

In this breakdown, all of the Earth’s water is consisted of in the hydrosphere. This has surface water (such as rivers, lakes, and also oceans), water in the ground, ice and also snow, and also water in the setting in the kind of water vapor. Related: Water on Earth


The Earth’s setting is the gaseous layer the envelopes the world. The commons term because that the environment is “air”.

The Earth’s atmosphere is held approximately the earth by the force of gravity.

A view of the environment from Chain of Craters roadway in Hawaii Volcanoes national Park in Hawaii. Photo: USGS, publicly domain.

The Earth’s atmosphere has 5 main layers and also a sixth layer, the ionosphere, that overlaps the mesosphere,thermosphere, andexosphere.

The bottom layer, i beg your pardon is the great closest to the Earth, is the most dense of the five layers. This great is known as the troposphere. This is the great of the Earth’s setting that humans live and also breathe in.

The troposphere starts at ground level and also extends to 10 kilometers in altitude.

The troposphere is likewise the great where virtually all clouds kind because 99% that the water in the Earth’s environment is uncovered in this layer.

Clouds end the environment-friendly River, Brown’s Park national Wildlife Refuge. Photo: Jason Alexander, USGS. Windy domain.

This layer mostly has a mixture of greatly nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and also argon (0.9%). In addition, map gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, and also ozone) account for one more tenth of a percent.

Water vapor, dust particles, pollutants, and pollen additionally can be found in mixed right into the atmosphere at this level.

The greater the altitude, the diluent the setting is.

The next layer is the stratosphere. This layer is the layer that contains the Earth’s ozone layer. Unequal the troposphere, the stratosphere has actually no turbulence. Uneven the wait in the troposphere, the air in the stratosphere gets warmer higher up in this layer.

Above the stratosphere is the mesosphere. This class in the Earth’s environment is the highest possible layer in i beg your pardon the gases room still mixed up fairly than layered. The mesosphere is the layer where meteors start the Earth’s atmosphere break up. Over there are enough gases in the mesosphere to develop friction which causes the meteors come burn up. We deserve to see those in ~ night as shooting stars.

The atmosphere in the thermosphere is very thin. Temperatures deserve to reach up to 4,500 Fahrenheit because of high-energy X-rays and also UV radiation native the Sun. There aren’t sufficient gas molecules to move this heat. Countless earth orbiting satellites and also the International room Station are uncovered in this layer.

The uppermost layer of the Earth’s setting is the exosphere. The setting is extremely thin in this layer through gases favor hydrogen and also helium.

The ionosphere is an active part of the Earth’s atmosphere that overlaps the the mesosphere,thermosphere, andexosphere. Favor its name, the ionosphere is the ionized part of the Earth’s atmosphere and is found between 48km (30mi) to 965km (600mi) altitude. Auroras occur in the ionosphere wherein high-energy corpuscle from the sun interacting with the atom in this layer.

An aurora borealis over the Pacific Northwest in the united States. Image: NASA astronaut Scott Kelly taken from the International an are Station, January 20, 2016.

To sum, the five mains great in the Earth’s environment are:

Exosphere: 700 to 10,000km (440 come 6,200 miles)Thermosphere: 80 to 700km (50 come 440 miles)Mesosphere: 50 come 80km (31 to 50 miles)Stratosphere: 12 come 50km (7 to 31 miles)Troposphere: 0 to 12km (0 come 7 miles)
The five main great of the Earth’s atmosphere. Image: NASA, publicly domain.


All of the water on earth is known collectively as the Earth’s hydrosphere. This is water found in the air, the soil, in glaciers, the oceans, rivers, lakes, and also streams the the world.

Water is uncovered in every three claims on earth which space gas, liquid, and solid.

as gas, water is found as water vapor in the atmosphere.

In liquid kind water is found in streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, and also oceans along with mist in the air and also as dew ~ above the surface of the ground.

Water is uncovered in solid form as ice and snow.

An ocean cavern on the coast of Capri Island, Italy. Photo: man J. Mosesso, USGS. Windy domain.


The lithosphere has the elements of the planet crust and component of the top mantle. This is the hard and also rigid external layer of the Earth. The term is taken native the Greek indigenous lithos definition “rocky”. This part of the Earth consists of soil.

The Earth’s lithosphere is comprised of the tardy and part of the top mantle. Image: Srimadhav adjusted from USGS, public domain.


The biosphere covers every living organisms on Earth.

There is an estimated 20 million to 100 millions different species in the human being organized right into the 100 phyla that comprise the 5 kingdoms the life forms.

These organisms can be found in nearly all components of the geosphere. There are organisms in the air, soil, and also water ~ above Earth.

Sandhill cranes flock together on a grassy area in Medaryville, Indiana. Photo: man J. Mosesso, USGS. Windy domain.

Watch: The Earth’s four Spheres

Earth separated into Two significant Systems

Some scientists arranged of the components of the planet can be split into two main systems. These two systems encompass all the organic and inorganic matter of the world.

Every living and non-living point on planet falls under among these two key spheres which space the Earth’s geosphere and biosphere.

As with the 4 system organization, the biosphere represents all of the Earth’s living organisms.

The geosphere is the cumulative name for the earth’s atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. The environment is the space above the Earth’s surface. This includes the wait that we all breath. The lithosphere is the solid part of the planet such together rocks and mountains. The hydrosphere is the liquid water such as the rivers, lakes, and also oceans. The cryosphere is the frozen water the the earth and is further damaged into four types: glaciers, eye cover, floating ice, and also permafrost.

The earth can be divided into two key systems: the geosphere and the biosphere. Image: James A. Tomberlin, USGS, windy domain.

See more: How Much Does A 16Oz Bottle Of Water Weigh ? How Many Pounds Does A 16 Oz Water Bottle Weigh


Ask an Astronomer. (n.d.). Cool Cosmos.

Layers that earth’s setting | UCAR facility for science education. (n.d.). UCAR center for scientific research Education.

Inside the earth . (n.d.). U.S. Geological survey Publications Warehouse.

Williams,R.S. (n.d.).The earth System. USGS.

World that Change: worldwide Biosphere. (2009, June 5). NASA planet Observatory – Home.


Tags Basics of Geography, biosphere, geosphere go into your email to receive the location Realm newsletter:

Explore an ext Geography Articles