Fluorine (F) is the first element in the Halogen group (group 17) in the periodic table. Its atomic number is 9 and also its atomic load is 19, and also it"s a gas at room temperature. The is the most electronegative element, given that the is the top element in the Halogen Group, and therefore is an extremely reactive. That is a nonmetal, and is one of the few elements the can form diatomic molecule (F2). It has 5 valence electrons in the 2p level. The electron construction is 1s22s22p5. It will certainly usually kind the anion F- because it is exceptionally electronegative and also a strong oxidizing agent. Fluorine is a Lewis acid in weak acid, which method that the accepts electrons when reacting. Fluorine has many isotopes, but the only stable one discovered in nature is F-19.

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Quick reference Table

symbol atom Number team Electron construction Atomic weight thickness Melting allude Boiling point critical Point Oxidation says Electronegativity steady Isotopes
F
9
17 (Halogens)
1s22s22p5
18.998 g
1.7 g/L
-219.62oC
-188.12oC
144.13K, 5.172 MPa
-1
3.98
F-19

Brief History

In the late 1600"s mineral which us now recognize contain fluorine were supplied in etching glass. The exploration of the aspect was prompted by the find for the civicpride-kusatsu.netical problem which to be able to assault glass (it is HF, a weak acid). The early background of the isolation and also work v fluorine and also hydrogen fluoride is filled with accidents since both are very dangerous. Eventually, electrolysis the a mixture the KF and HF (carefully ensuring the the result hydrogen and fluorine would not come in contact) in a platinum apparatus surrendered the element.

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Figure 2: digital configuration the Fluorine

Fluorine is the many electronegative element because it has 5 electrons in it"s 2P shell. The optimal electron construction of the 2P orbital contains 6 electrons, so since Fluorine is for this reason close to best electron configuration, the electrons space held really tightly to the nucleus. The high electronegativity the fluorine defines its tiny radius because the positive protons have actually a very strong attraction come the negative electrons, holding lock closer to the nucleus than the bigger and also less electronegative elements.


Reactions the Fluorine

Because the its reactivity, element fluorine is never uncovered in nature and no various other civicpride-kusatsu.netical aspect can displace fluorine indigenous its compounds. Fluorine binding with nearly any element, both metals and also nonmetals, because it is a very solid oxidizing agent. That is an extremely unstable and reactive since it is for this reason close come its best electron configuration. It creates covalent bonds v nonmetals, and since the is the most electronegative element, is always going to it is in the element that is reduced. It can also form a diatomic facet with chin (\(F_2\)), or covalent bonds whereby it oxidizes other halogens (\(ClF\), \(ClF_3\), \(ClF_5\)). It will certainly react explosively with numerous elements and compounds such as Hydrogen and also water. Elemental Fluorine is contempt basic, which method that as soon as it reacts with water it creates \(OH^-\).

\<3F_2+2H_2O \rightarrow O_2+4HF \tag1\>

When an unified with Hydrogen, Fluorine forms Hydrofluoric acid (\(HF\)), i beg your pardon is a weak acid. This acid is an extremely dangerous and when dissociated can cause severe damages to the body due to the fact that while it may not be painful initially, that passes v tissues quickly and can reason deep burns that interfere v nerve function.

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There are also some essential compounds made of Fluorine, ranging from nontoxic to very toxic. Fluorine forms covalent bonds through Carbon, i m sorry sometimes type into stable aromatic rings. Once Carbon reacts through Fluorine the reaction is complex and forms a mixture the \(CF_4\), \(C_2F_6\), an \(C_5F_12\).

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Fluorine reacts through Oxygen to form \(OF_2\) because Fluorine is much more electronegative than Oxygen. The reaction goes:

\<2F_2 + O_2 \rightarrow 2OF_2 \tag4\>

Fluorine is so electronegative that occasionally it will even form molecules v noble gases prefer Xenon, such as the the molecule Xenon Difluoride, \(XeF_2\).

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Fluorine also forms solid ionic compounds through metals. Some common ionic reactions of Fluorine are:

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\<4F_2 + HCl + H_2O \rightarrow 3HF + OF_2 + ClF_3 \tag7\>

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Applications the Fluorine

Compounds the fluorine are current in fluoridated toothpaste and in numerous municipal water equipment where they assist to avoid tooth decay. And, of course, fluorocarbons such together Teflon have made a major impact ~ above life in the 20th century. There are many applications of fluorine:

Rocket fuels Polymer and also plastics production teflon and tefzel production When linked with Oxygen, provided as a frozen fridge cooler Hydrofluoric acid offered for glass etching Purify public water offers Uranium manufacturing Air conditioning

Sources

Fluorine deserve to either be uncovered in nature or created in a lab. To make it in a lab, compounds prefer Potassium Fluoride are put through electrolysis through Hydrofluoric acid to develop pure Fluorine and also other compounds. It have the right to be carried out with a selection of compounds, generally ionic ones including Fluorine and also a metal. Fluorine can additionally be uncovered in nature in miscellaneous minerals and compounds. The two main compounds it deserve to be discovered in are Fluorspar (\(CaF_2\)) and also Cryolite (\(Na_3AlF_6\)).

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References

Newth, G. S. Inorganic civicpride-kusatsu.netistry. Longmans, Green, and also Co.:New York, 1903. Latimer, Wendell M., Hildebrand, Joel H. Reference book of not natural civicpride-kusatsu.netistry. The Macmillan Company: brand-new York, 1938.