recognize the basic structure for an alcohol. Recognize the structural function that classifies alcohols together primary, secondary, or tertiary. Surname alcohols with both typical names and also IUPAC names

An alcohol is an necessary compound through a hydroxyl (OH) functional group on one aliphatic carbon atom. Because OH is the functional team of every alcohols, we often represent alcohols by the general formula ROH, where R is an alkyl group. Alcohols are common in nature. Most human being are acquainted with ethyl alcohol (ethanol), the active ingredient in alcohol addict beverages, however this link is only among a family of essential compounds recognized as alcohols. The family also includes such familiar substances as cholesterol and also the carbohydrates. Methanol (CH3OH) and also ethanol (CH3CH2OH) room the first two members the the homologous collection of alcohols.

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Nomenclature the Alcohols

Alcohols with one to 4 carbon atoms are typically called by usual names, in i m sorry the surname of the alkyl team is followed by words alcohol:


According to the international Union that Pure and also Applied civicpride-kusatsu.netistry (IUPAC), alcohols are named by transforming the ending of the parent alkane name to -ol. Right here are some straightforward IUPAC rules because that naming alcohols:

The longest constant chain (LCC) of carbon atom containing the OH team is taken as the parental compound—an alkane with the same number of carbon atoms. The chain is numbered from the end nearest the oh group. The number that shows the place of the OH group is prefix to the surname of the parent hydrocarbon, and also the -e finishing of the parental alkane is replaced by the suffix -ol. (In cyclic alcohols, the carbon atom bearing the OH group is designated C1, yet the 1 is not supplied in the name.) Substituents room named and also numbered as in alkanes. If an ext than one five group shows up in the exact same molecule (polyhydroxy alcohols), suffixes such as -diol and also -triol space used. In these cases, the -e finishing of the parent alkane is retained.

Figure (PageIndex1) shows some instances of the applications of this rules.

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Classification the Alcohols

Some the the nature of alcohols depend on the number of carbon atoms attached come the specific carbon atom that is attached come the oh group. Alcohols have the right to be grouped right into three class on this basis.

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A primary (1°) alcohol is one in i beg your pardon the carbon atom (in red) with the OH group is attached to one various other carbon atom (in blue). Its general formula is RCH2OH.
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