Atherosclerosis, sometimes dubbed "hardening of the arteries," occurs when fat, cholesterol, and also other substances build up in the wall surfaces of arteries. These deposits are dubbed plaques. Over time, these plaques have the right to narrow or totally block the arteries and cause problems throughout the body.

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Atherosclerosis is a typical disorder.


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Atherosclerosis regularly occurs v aging. As you grow older, plaque buildup narrows her arteries and makes lock stiffer. These transforms make the harder because that blood to circulation through them.

Clots may form in this narrowed arteries and block blood flow. Piece of plaque can also break off and move to smaller blood vessels, impede them.

These blockages starve organization of blood and also oxygen. This can result in damage or organization death. It is a common reason of heart attack and also stroke.

High blood cholesterol level can reason hardening the the arteries at a younger age.

For many people, high cholesterol level are due to a diet that is also high in saturation fats and also trans fats.

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Other factors that can add to hardening the the arteries include:

Family background of hardening of the arteriesLack the exerciseSmoking

Atherosclerosis go not cause symptoms until blood circulation to component of the body becomes slowed or blocked.

If the arteries providing the heart end up being narrow, blood circulation can slow down or stop. This can reason chest pain (stable angina), shortness the breath, and also other symptoms.

Narrowed or clogged arteries may also cause problems in the intestines, kidneys, legs, and brain.


A health treatment provider will do a physics exam and also listen to the heart and also lungs v a stethoscope. Atherosclerosis can create a whooshing or punch sound ("bruit") over an artery.

All adult over the period of 18 should have their blood pressure checked every year. Much more frequent measurement may be essential for those with a history of high blood pressure readings or those through risk components for high blood pressure.

Cholesterol trial and error is encourage in every adults. The major national guidelines differ on the argued age to start testing.

Screening should start between ages 20 to 35 because that men and ages 20 to 45 because that women.Repeat trial and error is not necessary for five years for most adults v normal cholesterol levels.Repeat experimentation may be required if lifestyle transforms occur, such as huge increase in weight or a adjust in diet.More frequent testing is needed for adults through a history of high cholesterol, diabetes, kidney problems, heart disease, stroke, and also other problems

A number of imaging tests might be offered to see how well blood moves v your arteries.

Doppler exam that usage ultrasound or sound wavesSpecial CT scans referred to as CT angiography

Lifestyle transforms will alleviate your threat of atherosclerosis. Points you deserve to do include:

Avoid fat foods: Eat well-balanced meals that are low in fat and cholesterol. Include several day-to-day servings that fruits and also vegetables. Adding fish to her diet at the very least twice a week might be helpful. However, perform not eat fried fish.Limit just how much alcohol you drink: Recommended boundaries are one drink a day for women, 2 a day for men.Get regular physical activity: Exercise through moderate intensity (such together brisk walking) 5 days a week because that 30 minute a work if you are at a healthy and balanced weight. For weight loss, exercise for 60 come 90 minutes a day. Speak to your provider before starting a new exercise plan, particularly if you have actually been diagnosed through heart an illness or friend have ever before had a love attack.
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If your blood press is high, it is crucial for you to lower it and also keep it under control.

The goal of therapy is to mitigate your blood pressure so that you have actually a reduced risk that health difficulties caused by high blood pressure. You and also your provider should collection a blood push goal because that you.

Do not avoid or readjust high blood pressure medications without talk to her provider.

Your provider may want you to take medication for abnormal cholesterol levels or for high blood press if lifestyle alters do not work. This will depend on:

Your ageThe medicines you takeYour danger of side results from possible medicinesWhether you have heart an illness or other blood circulation problemsWhether friend smoke or are overweightWhether you have diabetes or other heart an illness risk factorsWhether girlfriend have any kind of other medical problems, such as kidney condition

Your provider may suggest taking aspirin or an additional medicine to assist prevent blood coagulation from developing in your arteries. These drugs are dubbed antiplatelet drugs. Execute NOT take aspirin without first talking to your provider.

Losing weight if you space overweight and reducing blood street if you have diabetes or pre-diabetes can aid reduce the threat of arising atherosclerosis.


Atherosclerosis cannot be reversed once it has occurred. However, way of living changes and also treating high cholesterol levels deserve to prevent or slow the procedure from becoming worse. This can assist reduce the possibilities of having actually a love attack and also stroke together a result of atherosclerosis.


In part cases, the plaque is component of a process that causes a weakening the the wall surface of an artery. This can lead to a bulge in an artery dubbed an aneurysm. Aneurysms have the right to break open up (rupture). This reasons bleeding that have the right to be life threatening.


Hardening of the arteries; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis


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References


Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, Buroker AB, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention that cardiovascular disease: executive, management summary: a report the the American college of Cardiology/American love Association Task force on Clinical exercise Guidelines. J to be Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(10):1376-1414.PMID: 30894319 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30894319/.

Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and also cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald"s heart Disease: A Textbook the Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 48.

James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based reminder for the monitoring of high blood pressure in adults: report native the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint national Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520. PMID: 24352797 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24352797/.

Libby P. The vascular biological of atherosclerosis. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald"s love Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 44.

Marks AR. Cardiac and circulatory function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 47.

US preventative Services Task pressure website. Last recommendation statement: statin usage for the major prevention the cardiovascular condition in adults: preventative medication. Update November 13, 2016. Accessed January 28, 2020. Www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/statin-use-in-adults-preventive-medication1.

Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA tip for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and also management of high blood press in adults: a report that the American university of Cardiology/American heart Association Task pressure on Clinical exercise Guidelines. J to be Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(19):2199-2269. PMID: 2914653 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29146533/.

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Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, associate Professor of Medicine, department of Cardiology, Harborview clinical Center, college of Washington medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed through David Zieve, MD, MHA, medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


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