Dry cell Battery

A dry-cell battery supplies an immobilized electrolyte that minimizes humidity and allows for premium portability.

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Learning Objectives

Discuss the operational materials of a dried cell battery and also their major benefits


Key Takeaways

Key PointsA battery includes electrochemical cell that have the right to store chemical energy to be converted to electrical energy.A dry-cell battery stores power in one immobilized electrolyte paste, i m sorry minimizes the need for water.Common examples of dry-cell batteries encompass zinc-carbon batteries and also alkaline batteries.Key Termscathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs.electrolyte: A problem that, in solution or when molten, ionizes and also conducts electricity.anode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.

Defining a dry Cell

In electricity, a battery is a device consisting that one or more electrochemical cell that transform stored chemical energy into electric energy. The dried cell is one of many general species of electrochemical cells.

A dried cell has actually the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, v only enough moisture in it to enable current come flow. Unequal a wet cell, a dry cell can operate in any orientation there is no spilling, together it has no free liquid. This adaptability makes it perfect for portable equipment. By comparison, the first wet-cell batteries were generally fragile glass containers v lead rods hanging native an open up top. They, therefore, needed cautious handling to avoid spillage. The advance of the dry-cell battery allowed for a significant advance in battery safety and also portability.

A common dry-cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery, which provides a cell that is sometimes referred to as the Leclanché cell. The cabinet is comprised of an external zinc container, which acts as the anode. The cathode is a main carbon rod, surrounded by a mixture of carbon and also manganese(IV) dioxide (MnO2). The electrolyte is a dough of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). A fibrous towel separates the two electrodes, and a brass pin in the center of the cabinet conducts electrical energy to the external circuit.


A zinc-carbon dry-cell battery: an illustration of a zinc-carbon dried cell. In it, a zinc casing acts as the anode, surrounding a carbon rod, i m sorry acts as a cathode. Between them, the electrolyte paste functions as the battery.


Chemical reactions occur in every part of the battery to enable for power storage; the reactions have the right to be defined using well balanced chemical equations that delineate the electron flow. The dough of ammonium chloride reacts according come the adhering to half-reaction:

2 extNH_4 ( extaq) + 2 exte^- ightarrow 2 extNH_3 ( extg) + extH_2 ( extg)

The manganese(IV) oxide in the cell gets rid of the hydrogen developed by the ammonium chloride, according to the complying with reaction:

2 extMnO_2 ( exts) + extH_2 ( extg) ightarrow extMn_2 extO_3 ( exts) + extH_2 extO ( extl)

The combined result of these two reactions takes location at the cathode. Including these two reactions together, we get:

2 extNH_4 ( extaq) + 2 extMnO_2 ( exts) +2 exte^ ightarrow extMn_2 extO_3 ( exts) + 2 extNH_3 ( extg) + extH_2 extO ( extl)

Finally, the anode half-reaction is as follows:

extZn ( exts) ightarrow extZn^2+ + 2 exte^-

Therefore, the overall equation because that the cabinet is:

extZn ( exts) + 2 extMnO_2 ( exts) + 2 extNH_4 ( extaq) ightarrow extMn_2 extO_3 ( exts) + extH_2 extO ( extl) + extZn_2 + 2 extNH_3 ( extg)

The potential because that the above reaction is 1.50 V.

Another instance of a dry-cell battery is the alkaline battery. Alkaline batteries are virtually the exact same as zinc-carbon batteries, except that the electrolyte provided is potassium hydroxide (KOH) fairly than ammonium chloride. In part more modern-day types that so-called “high-power” battery that have actually a much reduced capacity than typical alkaline batteries, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride.


Mercury Battery

Mercury batteries to be a usual electrochemical battery the were phased out of mainstream usage in the U.S. By the 1996 Battery Act.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the applications the a mercury-oxide battery


Key Takeaways

Key PointsMercury battery were really common in the 20th century and were offered in plenty of common tiny and large appliances.Advantages of the mercury battery incorporate its lengthy shelf life and steady voltage output.Mercury batteries usage a mercury compound together the cathode v a zinc anode.Along with various other batteries that relied on hefty metals, mercury batteries were phased the end by the Battery Act, which sought come decrease the environmental influence of disposable batteries.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cabinet at i beg your pardon oxidation occurs.electrolyte: A problem that, in solution or once molten, ionizes and also conducts electricity.cathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which palliation occurs.

A mercury battery, also called a mercuric oxide battery or a mercury cell, is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery. This batteries have actually been provided in the form of button cells for watches, listening aids, and also calculators, and in larger develops for various other devices, consisting of walkie-talkies.


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Mercury clock battery: Mercury batteries are convenient since of your size. This is a tiny watch mercury battery.


Mercury batteries have the advantages of a lengthy shelf life of approximately 10 years and steady voltage output. Although these batteries were an extremely common in the mid-20th century, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery administration Act (the Battery Act) pass in 1996 in the unified States has actually largely phased the end mercury batteries due to environmental concerns.

Mercury batteries usage either pure mercuric oxide or a mixture the mercuric oxide v manganese dioxide together the cathode. Mercury oxide cells are built with a zinc anode, a mercury oxide cathode, and potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte. Due to the fact that mercuric oxide is a non-conductor, some graphite is combined with it. This helps avoid the repertoire of mercury into large droplets. Throughout discharge, zinc oxidizes to zinc oxide, and mercuric oxide gets diminished to elemental mercury. A small extra mercuric oxide is put into the cabinet to prevent evolution of hydrogen gas in ~ the finish of its life.

In a mercury battery, salt hydroxide or potassium hydroxide is offered as one electrolyte. Sodium hydroxide cells have actually nearly continuous voltage at low discharge currents, making them appropriate for hearing aids, calculators, and also electronic watches. Potassium hydroxide cells, in turn, provide continuous voltage at greater currents, do them perfect for applications requiring current surges, such as photographic cameras with flash and watches through a backlight. Potassium hydroxide cells additionally have far better performance at lower temperatures.

The Battery Act

In 1996, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery administration Act (the Battery Act; Public legislation 104-142) to be signed into law in the unified States. The intended objective of the act was to reduce hefty metals in municipal waste, streams, and also ground water. This resulted from the disposal of mercury in single-use batteries, as well as of other toxic metal content such together lead indigenous lead-acid batteries and the cadmium in rechargeable batteries. The law thus sought to phase out the usage of mercury in batteries because of the environmental damage it caused.


Lead storage Battery

Lead-acid batteries carry out high currents and store charge for lengthy periods the time, do them vital for vehicles.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLead- mountain batteries, also known as lead warehouse batteries, deserve to store a lot of charge and administer high current for short periods of time.The straightforward design that lead-acid batteries has not readjusted significantly because 1859 once Planté design them, return some enhancements were do by Faure.Lead-acid battery are qualified of being recharged, which is essential for their usage in cars.Discharging the stored energy relies ~ above both the confident and an adverse plates ending up being lead(II) sulfate and also the electrolyte losing much that its dissolved sulfuric acid.Key Termslignosulfonate: Water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers; they space byproducts native the manufacturing of hardwood pulp utilizing sulfite pulping.

Lead Batteries

A lead storage battery, additionally known together a lead-acid battery, is the oldest type of rechargeable battery and also one the the most typical energy storage devices. These batteries were designed in 1859 through French physicist Gaston Planté, and also they room still offered in a range of applications. Most people are accustomed to making use of them in vehicles, wherein they have the capability to carry out high currents because that cranking power.

Although the batteries space reliable, they have a limited life, are heavy to ship, and also contain toxic products that require certain removal approaches at the finish of their valuable life. Lead-acid batteries have moderate power density and an excellent response time. Depending on the power conversion technology incorporated, batteries deserve to go from accepting energy to supplying energy instantaneously. Lead-acid batteries are affected by temperature and must be kept in stimulate to accomplish maximum life expectancy.

Designing a command Battery

In Planté’s architecture of the lead-acid cell, the positive and negative plates to be made out of two spirals of lead foil, separated v a sheet of cloth, and coiled up. The cell initially had low capacity. A slow procedure of “forming” was forced to corrode the lead foils, developing lead dioxide on the plates and also roughening lock to rise surface area. Planté plates space still used in part stationary applications, wherein the plates space mechanically grooved to increase surface area.


Lead storage battery: A chart showing just how a command storage battery is composed of 6 two-volt cells linked in series. The consist of of every cell is also shown.


Camille Alphonse Faure’s pasted-plate building and construction is common of automotive batteries today. Each plate is composed of a rectangle-shaped lead grid. The holes of the grid room filled through a paste of red lead and also 33 percent dilute sulfuric acid. This porous paste enables the acid to react through the lead within the plate, which increases the surface ar area. As soon as dry, the plates are stacked with an ideal separators and inserted right into the battery container. An odd number of plates is generally used, with one an ext negative plate than positive. Each alternative plate is connected.

The paste includes carbon black, barium sulfate, and also lignosulfonate. The barium sulfate acts together a seed crystal for the lead-to-lead sulfate reaction. The lignosulfonate avoids the negative plate from developing a heavy mass during the discharge cycle, and instead enables the formation of lengthy needle-like crystals. Carbon black color counteracts the effect of inhibiting formation caused through the lignosulfonates.

Discharge Chemistry

In the discharged state, both the hopeful and negative plates come to be lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4). The electrolyte loses much of its dissolved sulfuric acid and also becomes primarily water. The discharge procedure is pushed by the conduction of electron from the an unfavorable plate back into the cell at the optimistic plate in the exterior circuit.

Negative plate reaction: Pb(s) + HSO4–(aq) → PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e–

Positive key reaction: PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e– → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Combining these 2 reactions, one can determine the in its entirety reaction:

Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2HSO4–(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Charge Chemistry

This kind of battery deserve to be recharged. In the fee state, every cell contains an unfavorable plates that elemental command (Pb) and positive bowl of lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) in one electrolyte of about 4.2 M sulfuric mountain (H2SO4). The charging process is thrust by the forcible removal of electrons from the hopeful plate and also the forcible arrival of them come the an unfavorable plate by the charging source.

Negative bowl reaction: PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e– → Pb(s) + HSO4–(aq)

Positive plate reaction: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e–

Combining these 2 reactions, the all at once reaction is the reverse of the discharge reaction:

2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2HSO4–(aq)

Notice exactly how the charging reaction is the exact opposite that the discharge reaction.


Other Rechargeable Batteries

The need for numerous varieties of rechargeable battery is due to their lower cost and also lower environmental impact.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsRechargeable batteries store power through a reversible chemical reaction, which allows charge to it is in stored again ~ the battery has actually been drained.Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost that use and also environmental impact than disposable batteries, which could be why the U.S. Demand for rechargeable batteries is cultivation much quicker than is the demand for non-rechargeable batteries.Common species of rechargeable batteries space lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel- steel hydride (NiMH), lithium- ion (Li-ion), lithium-ion polymer (LiPo), and rechargeable alkaline batteries.Key Termssecondary cell: An electric cell the is rechargeable because it switch chemical power into electric energy by a reversible chemistry reaction.energy density: The amount of energy that can be stored loved one to the volume of the battery.

Rechargeable Batteries

A rechargeable battery is a form of electrical battery that is consisted of of one or much more electrochemical cells. That is well-known as a secondary cell because its electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. In other words, ~ the save on computer charge has actually been drained, the battery’s chemical reactions can occur again, in reverse, to keep a brand-new charge. The U.S. Need for rechargeable battery is cultivation twice as rapid as the need for non-rechargeable batteries, in part because rechargeable batteries have actually lower environmental influence and full cost of use than execute disposable batteries.

Grid energy storage applications use rechargeable batteries for load-leveling. Load-leveling involves storing electric energy because that use throughout peak fill period. By charging batteries throughout periods of short electrical demand for use throughout periods the high demand, load-leveling helps eliminate the need for high-quality peaking power plants and helps alleviate the cost of generators over much more hours the operation.

Rechargeable Battery Construction

As v all batteries, rechargeable batteries consist of one anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. Throughout charging, the anode material is oxidized, creating electrons, and also the cathode is reduced, spend electrons.


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Charging a battery: chart of charging a battery.


These electron constitute the existing flow in the exterior circuit. The electrolyte might serve together a basic buffer for inner ion flow in between the electrodes, together in lithium-ion and nickel-cadmium cells, or it might be an energetic participant in the electrochemical reaction, as in lead-acid cells.

Types of Rechargeable Batteries

Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used in rechargeable batteries. Different varieties include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), lithium-ion polymer (LiPo), and also rechargeable alkaline batteries.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries, developed in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, space the oldest form of rechargeable battery. Their capacity to supply high-surge currents method that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. This features, along with their short cost, do them attractive for usage in engine vehicles, which need high currents.

Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviation NiMH or Ni-MH, is very comparable to the nickel-cadmium cabinet (NiCd). NiMH battery use confident electrodes that nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), together does the NiCd, yet the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy rather of cadmium. A NiMH battery have the right to have two to three times the capacity of a NiCd battery of identical size, and its energy density approaches that of a lithium-ion cell.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

The lithium-ion battery is a family members of rechargeable battery in i beg your pardon lithium ions relocate from the an unfavorable electrode to the optimistic electrode during discharge, and earlier when charging. The an unfavorable electrode of a traditional lithium-ion cabinet is do from carbon. The confident electrode is a steel oxide, and also the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an essential solvent. Castle are one of the many popular varieties of rechargeable battery because that portable electronics, with among the best energy densities and also only a slow-moving loss of charge when not in use. Lithium ion batteries are an ext expensive 보다 NiCd batteries however operate over a broader temperature variety while being smaller and lighter. They are fragile and also thus require a security circuit to limit optimal voltages.

Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

Lithium-ion polymer (LiPo) batteries room usually created of several identical second cells in parallel to rise the discharge-current capability. They are often easily accessible in collection “packs” to increase the total accessible voltage. Your primary distinction from lithium-ion batteries is that their lithium salt electrolyte is not organized in an necessary solvent. Instead, it is in a hard polymer composite, such as polyethylene oxide or polyacrylonitrile. The advantages of LiPo over the lithium-ion style include perhaps lower price of manufacture, adaptability come a wide selection of packaging shapes, reliability, and also ruggedness. Their major disadvantage is that they hold less charge.

Alkaline Batteries

There are additionally rechargeable develops of alkaline batteries, which space a kind of main battery dependent upon the reaction in between zinc (Zn) and manganese dioxide (MnO2). They room manufactured totally charged and have the capacity to carry their fee for years, longer than most NiCd and NiMH batteries, i beg your pardon self-discharge. Rechargeable alkaline batteries can also have a high recharging efficiency and also have much less environmental impact than disposable cells.


The Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable batteries commonly used in consumer electronics; they count on Li+ migration.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the chemical changes that take place in a lithium-ion battery throughout charge and also discharge


Key Takeaways

Key PointsSuperior power densities, no memory effect, and also only a slow loss of charge when not in use make lithium- ion batteries typical for use in consumer electronics, military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications.The anode is generally a lithium-containing compound and the cathode is typically a carbon-containing compound.The discharging reaction counts on the lithium ion native the electrolyte being extracted from the cathode and also moved come the anode, when the opposite is true in the charging reaction.Key Termsanode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at i beg your pardon oxidation occurs.cathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which palliation occurs.electrolyte: A problem that, in solution or as soon as molten, ionizes and also conducts electricity.

Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries, or LIBs) are a household of rechargeable battery in i beg your pardon lithium ions relocate from the negative electrode to the hopeful electrode throughout discharge. The ions follow the turning back path as soon as the battery is charging. Li-ion batteries usage a lithium compound as the electrode material.

Uses because that Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are common in customer electronics. Lock are among the many popular varieties of rechargeable battery because that portable electronics since they have one that the finest energy densities and only a slow loss of charge as soon as not in use.


Laptop lithium-ion battery: The lithium-ion battery is good for usage in portable electronics, consisting of laptops.


Beyond the ar of consumer electronics, LIBs are likewise growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and also aerospace applications. Research study is yielding a present of renovations to classic LIB technology, concentrating on power density, durability, cost, and safety.

Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Chemistry, performance, cost, and safety qualities vary through the kind of LIB. Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based upon lithium cobalt oxide (LCO), which offer high power density however have popular safety concerns, especially when damaged. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium manganese oxide (LMO), and also lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNMC) batteries market lower power density but longer lives and inherent safety. These chemical compositions, or chemistries, room being widely provided for powering electric tools and medical equipment.

Charging and Discharging

The 3 participants in the electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, the cathode, and also the electrolyte. Both the anode, i m sorry is a lithium-containing compound, and the cathode, which is a carbon-containing compound, space materials right into which lithium ions have the right to migrate. The electrolyte is a lithium salt in an essential solvent. When a lithium-based cabinet is discharging, the optimistic lithium ion is extract from the cathode and also inserted right into the anode, release stored power in the process. When the cell is charging, the turning back occurs.

Materials because that Cathodes and also Anodes

The many commercially popular cathode material is graphite. The anode is generally one of 3 materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such together lithium stole phosphate), or a spinel (such together lithium manganese oxide). The electrolyte is generally a mixture of necessary carbonates, such together ethylene lead carbonate or diethyl carbonate, include complexes that lithium ions.

In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium ions are transported to and also from the cathode or anode. The transition metal, cobalt (Co), oxidizes indigenous Co3+ to Co4+ during charging and reduces from Co4+ to Co3+ throughout discharge.


Fuel Cells

Fuel cells are a compelling alternate to batteries, yet they room still in the at an early stage stages that development.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsA fuel cabinet is a maker that switch the chemical power from fuel into power via a chemical reaction with oxygen or one more oxidizing agent.Batteries work in a closeup of the door system, if fuel cells require their reaction to be replenished.Using hydrogen as the significant fuel source in fuel cells has several pros and also cons that have kept it controversial for mainstream use.Fuel cell are consisted of of three adjacent segments: the anode, the electrolyte, and the cathode.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at i m sorry oxidation occurs.fuel cell: A machine that converts the chemical power from a fuel into electrical power through a chemical reaction v oxygen or another oxidizing agent.cathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cabinet at which palliation occurs.battery: A maker that produces electrical energy by a chemical reaction between two substances.

Introduction and also History

A fuel cabinet is a device that counter the chemical power from fuel into electrical energy via a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most usual fuel, however hydrocarbons together as herbal gas and alcohols are occasionally used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and also oxygen come run, yet they can develop electricity continually because that as lengthy as this inputs are supplied. The development of miniature fuel cell can carry out a cheap, efficient, and also reusable alternate to batteries.

William Grove developed the an initial crude fuel cell in 1839. The very first commercial usage of fuel cells remained in NASA room programs come generate strength for probes, satellites, and space capsules. Currently, fuel cells are supplied for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial, and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. Lock are used to power fuel-cell vehicles, consisting of automobiles, buses, forklifts, airplanes, boats, motorcycles, and also submarines.

Fuel cabinet Structure and also Function

There space many types of fuel cells, however they all consist of an anode, i m sorry is the an adverse side, a cathode, i m sorry is the optimistic side, and also an electrolyte, which enables charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell.


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Fuel cell: Fuel cells convert the chemical power from fuel into power via a chemistry reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. However, making use of hydrogen together the major fuel source in fuel cells has several pros and also cons that have actually kept that controversial because that mainstream use.


Electrons are drawn from the anode come the cathode with an exterior circuit, developing direct-current electricity. Fuel cells space classified through the electrolyte lock use, i beg your pardon is the key difference among the various types of fuel cells. Individual fuel cells produce reasonably small electrical potentials, around 0.7 volts, so cells are “stacked,” or inserted in series, to increase the voltage. In enhancement to electricity, fuel cells create water, heat, and, relying on the fuel source, very small amounts the nitrogen dioxide and other emissions. The energy performance of a fuel cabinet is generally in between 40-60 percent; it can reach 85 percent if waste warm is captured for use.

Despite the variety of fuel cell types, castle all job-related in the same general manner. 2 chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments. The net an outcome of the 2 reactions is that fuel is consumed, water or carbon dioxide is produced, and also an electric present is created, which can be offered to power electric devices, generally referred to as the “load.”

At the anode, a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, typically hydrogen, turning the fuel into a positively charged ion and also a negatively charged electron. The electrolyte is a substance the is especially designed so that ions have the right to pass with it however electrons cannot. The freed electrons travel with a wire, creating the electrical current. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. There, the ions are rejoined with the electrons, and the 2 react with a third chemical, typically oxygen, to produce water or carbon dioxide.

The Pros and also Cons of Fuel Cells

The use of hydrogen fuel cells is controversial in some applications. An initial of all, because the power used to develop the hydrogen is equivalent to the power in the hydrogen, the is inefficient, and also therefore expensive. If traditional power plants were used to develop the hydrogen there would certainly be, at best, no positive change in existing pollution rates. Other varieties of fuel cell don’t face this problem. Because that example, organic fuel cells take glucose and methanol native food scraps and convert them right into hydrogen and also food because that the bacteria that break that down.

There space several benefits to hydrogen fuel cells, though. If the electricity developed by clean, renewable energy sources, such together solar and wind power, is used to develop hydrogen, the energy can be stored more easily 보다 in huge battery complexes.

There are practical problems to be get rid of as well. Return the usage of fuel cells because that consumer products is probable in the close to future, most current designs won’t work if oriented upside-down. Additionally, existing fuel cell cannot it is in scaled to the small size necessary for portable gadgets such together cell phones. Current designs additionally require venting and also therefore cannot run under water. They may not be usable top top aircraft because of the danger of fuel leaks through the vents. Finally, technologies for for sure refueling of customer fuel cells room not yet in place.

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Fuel cabinet in a car: Fuel cells space a potential energy source for cars that do not run on gasoline. However, although fuel cells market clean, renewable energy, there are several barriers to its widespread adoption.