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Author-historian Aüan Nevins retired freshly from the Columbia university faculty and also is now on the staff of the Henry E. Huntington Library, san Marino, California. In November, 1957, he organized and also directed a conference top top the CMl battle asa attribute ofthe 125th anniversary that Gettysburg College. This lecture was one of *ix gift to the large popular audiences which to visit the the conference. A major Result that the Civil battle ALLAN NEVINS thomas carlyle shrank in horror from our polite War. The reality that multitudes the Americans have to take come butchering one another seemed come him an indictment of our democracy; the issue of the Negroes" status struck that as much from justifying together a holocaust the lives and also property. His remark the the war was a fire in a dirty chimney, and also his little fable referred to as "Ilias Americana in Nuce" deeply offended the North. Among the north soldiers who provided their lives were 2 gallant young men, Robert Gould Shaw and Charles Russell Lowell, who had actually warmly admired Carlyle. Shaw, leader the Massachusetts fancy troops, died in trying to capture Fort Wagner; Lowell, who had married Shaw"s sister Josephine, to be slain at Cedar Creek. Both to be graduates that Harvard. 3 years after ~ the war brief biographies the them, and of ninety-five rather who had actually been killed, showed up in the Harvard Memorial Biographies, edited by cutting board Wentworth Higginson. Thereupon Charles Lowell"s young widow, Mrs. Josephine shaw Lowell, sent out the volumes to Carlyle, through a note describing your admiration that him, and a request the he check out their lives, and also reconsider his see on the war. Carlyle replied, in a letter here published for the very first time: Chelsea—10 March, 1870 to ~ Madam ns rec"d your gende, land and also beautiful message, and also in obedience come so poignant a command, soft to me as sunlight or moonlight, however imperative as couple of eld be, I have actually read diose lives you significant for me; with number of of the odiers and also intend to read die whole prior to I finish. Plenty of thanks to you because that 237 238ALLAN NEVINS this Volumes and diat note. The would need a heart lot harder than mine no to identify the high and also noble heart that dwelt in diese young men, dieir heroic readiness, complete devotedness, dieir patience, diligence, shining valour& virtue in the cause they observed to be the highest—while alas any difference I might feel ~ above diat latterpoint, just deepens to me dice sorrowful and noble tragedy every of their brief Uves is. Girlfriend may believe me, Madam, I would strew flowers on tiieir graves in addition to you, and piously bid tiiem rest in Hope. It is not hesitant to me tiiat tiiey additionally have added dieir mite come what is the eternal cause of God and also man; or that, in circuitous yet sure ways, all men, black & White, will infallibly obtain their profit out of the same. With many thanks & regards, to ~ Madam, I stay Yrs dear T. Carlyle. They "added their mite" come the "eternal cause of God and also man." so Francis Parkman had earlier written Mrs. Robert Gould Shaw, saying the he envied her husband his death, for this reason eloquent that the highest consecration . Countless of the gains and losses that any an excellent war space intangible and incomputable . No one deserve to say whether the gain to culture of the work-related two such rare spirits together Robert Gould Shaw and also Charles R. Lowell would have done, had they lived, was greater than the acquire from the heroic example they set. Other gains and also losses, part material, some moral, have the right to partly be appraised. Yet in looking in ~ the impacts of the war, the is for sure to lay down two generalizations in ~ the outset: The tremendous magnitude that the change it wrought was not anticipated in its at an early stage phases, and the nature ofthe adjust was not and also could no be accurately analyzed when it closed in 1865. To be sure, some of its after-effects were foreseen. Shrewd men perceived in 1861 the if the battle was protracted and also ended in north victory, it would certainly strengthen not only the Union and also the federal government , butthe spirit ofnational unity.

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