Shaking and also trembling hat outcomes from the activity of the rock beneath the Earth’s surface
StressA pressure that acts on rock to readjust its shape or volume.

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ShearingStress that pushes a mass of rock in 2 opposite directions. Can reason rock to break and also slip apart or to adjust its shape.
TensionStress force that pulls on the crust and stretches the rock so it becomes thinner in the middle.
CompressionStress pressure that squeezes rock till it crease or breaks.
DeformationAny change in the volume or form of the Earth’s crust
FaultBreak in the crust wherein slabs crust slip previous each other. Occurs generally along plate borders where the forces of plate activity compress, pull, or shear the crust so lot that the crust breaks.
Strike-slip faultThe rocks on either next of the error slip past each various other sideways with small up or down motions.
Normal faultThe error is in ~ an angle so one absent lies above the error while the other block lies below the fault.
Hanging wallThe fifty percent of the fault the lies over the various other block
FootwallThe other fifty percent of the fault the lies below.
Reverse faultHas the very same structure the a normal fault, but the blocks move in the contrary directions. Compression forces develop reverse faults.
Fault –block mountainWhen common faults uplift a block of rock
FoldsBends in absent that forms when compression shortens and thickens component of the Earth’s crust.
AnticlineFold in rock the bends upward right into an arch
SynclineFold in rock that bends bottom in the center to form a bowl.
PlateauA huge area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
FocusA allude beneath Earth’s surface ar where absent that united state under anxiety breaks, triggering an earthquake.
EpicenterPoint ~ above the surface ar directly above the focus
Seismic wavesVibrations that travel through planet carrying the energy release during an earthquake.
P wavesEarthquake waves the compress and expand the ground prefer an accordion. Main waves.
S wavesEarthquake waves that vibrate from next to side and are the second ones come arrve in ~ a record station
Surface wavesWhen p waves and s waves space transformed right into surface waves. Lock move much more slowly then p and s waves.
SeismographRecords the ground movements cause by seismic waves as they relocate through the Earth.
MagnitudeMeasurement that earthquake strength based on seismic wants and movement along faults.
Mercalli scaleDeveloped to rate earthquakes follow to your intensity
Richter scaleRating that the dimension of seismic waves as measures by a particular kind of mechanical wave.
Moment magnitude scaleRating mechanism that approximates the total energy exit by one earthquake.
LiquefactionOccurs once an earthquake’s violent shower suddenly transforms loose, soft soil right into liquid mud. Most likely where the floor if full of moisture.

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AftershockAn earthquake the occurs ~ a large earthquake in the exact same area.
TsunamisWater displaced by an earthquake the forms big waves
Base-isolating buildingA structure designed to alleviate the amount of power that reaches the structure during an earthquake
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